Mobile Testing Plugin

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Introduction

With the Mobile Testing Plugin applications can be tested on Android and iOS devices. It does not matter whether real mobile devices or emulated devices are used. The plugin can (and usually is) used together with the GUI-Browser which supports creating tests. It can also be used to record test procedures.

The Appium is used to connect to the devices. Appium is a free open source framework for testing and automating mobile applications.

We recommend editing the Tutorial to familiarize yourself with the Mobile Plugin. This leads step by step through the creation of a test case using an example and explains the necessary basics.

Installation and Assembly

To use the Mobile Testing Plugin you must have expecco incl. plugins installed and you need the corresponding licenses. expecco communicates with the mobile devices via an Appium server, which either runs on the same computer as expecco, or on a second computer. This computer must be accessible by expecco.

Installation overview with expecco 18.1:

  • Appium servera 1.6.4 for Android
  • Appium serverb 1.8.0 for iOS

for Android devices starting with version 4.3:

  • Java JDKa Version 7, 8 or 9
  • Android SDKa

for iOS devices version 9.3 or higher:

  • Xcode 9.3.x
  • Apple developer certificate with associated private key
  • Provisioning profiles with the mobile devices used

(a) included in Mobile Testing Supplement
(b) included in Mobile Testing Supplement for Mac OS

Installation overview with expecco 2.11:

  • Appium serverab 1.6.4

for Android devices starting with version 4.3:

  • Java JDKa Version 7 or 8
  • Android SDKa

for iOS devices version 9.3 or higher:

  • Xcode 8.3.x
  • Apple developer certificate with associated private key
  • Provisioning profiles with the mobile devices used

(a) included in Mobile Testing Supplement
(b) included in Mobile Testing Supplement for Mac OS

Installation overview with expecco 2.10:

  • Appium serverab 1.4.16

for Android devices from version 2.3.3 up to version 6.0:

  • Java JDK versiona 7 or 8
  • Android SDKa

for iOS devices up to version 9.3:

  • Xcode 7.3.x
  • Apple developer certificate c with associated private key
  • Provisioning Profilec with the mobile devices used

(a) included in Mobile Testing Supplement
(b) included in Mobile Testing Supplement for Mac OS
(c) for signing the app

Please note that due to the requirements iOS devices can only be controlled from a Mac. expecco can then communicate over the network with the Appium server on the Mac to test on the iOS devices connected there. The following explains how to install Appium and other necessary applications for Windows and Mac OS.


MobileTestingAufbau.png

Windows

The easiest way to install everything is with our Mobile Testing Supplement:

This installs Appium version 1.8.1. The supplement also offers to install Android Debug Bridge and Google USB Driver (adb-setup-1.4.3). This covers drivers for a wide range of Android devices, so you don't have to find and install a separate driver for each device. A 'JDK is no longer included, you have to download it yourself, e.g. from Oracle.

This installs a Java JDK version 8, android-sdk and Appium version 1.6.4. The supplement also offers a universal adb driver (ClockworkMod). This combines drivers for a wide range of Android devices, so you don't have to look for and install a separate driver for each device.

This installs a Java JDK version 8, android-sdk and Appium version 1.4.16. During the installation the graphical user interface of Appium is started, this window can be closed again immediately. The supplement also offers a universal adb driver (ClockworkMod). This combines drivers for a wide range of Android devices, so that you do not have to search for and install a separate driver for each device.

When starting Appium it can happen that the Windows Firewall blocks the node server. In this case expecco cannot start an Appium server. After the installation it is best to start the file appium.cmd in the folder appium of the Mobile Testing Supplements. If the appium server can be started, it should also work from expecco. However, if the Windows firewall is logging in, allow access.


Mac OS

expecco 18.1

There is a new Mobile Testing Supplement for Mac OS (1.1.94). This contains Appium 1.8.0. For devices with iOS 11 Xcode 9 is also required, at least in the corresponding minor version, e.g. Xcode 9.3 for iOS 11.3. Otherwise everything remains the same as with expecco 2.11.

expecco 2.11

The Mac used should run OS X 10.12 (Sierra) and Xcode 8.3 or later as operating system version. You can install a current version of Xcode from the App Store. Appium also requires a Java installation. To do this, install a JDK version 7 or 8. You can now install Appium 1.6.4 using our Mobile Testing Supplements for Mac OS (1.0.94). After you have downloaded it, you can move it to a directory of your choice (e.g. your home directory) and unpack it there. A suitable command in a shell could look like this:

tar -xvpf Mobile_Testing_Supplement_for_Mac_OS_1.0.94.tar.bz2

Note: For the automation of iOS devices from version 10, an installation of a comparable new Xcode 8 is necessary (for iOS 10.2' at least Xcode 8.2', for iOS 10.3 at least Xcode 8.3, etc.), which may not run on older operating systems. So if you switch to a newer iOS version, you will usually also need a newer Xcode version, which may require an OS upgrade (see also Xcode versions).

If Xcode 8.3 or later is your default Xcode installation, you can start Appium directly:

Mobile_Testing_Supplement/bin/start-appium-1.6.4

If there is not enough new Xcode configured by default, you must specify the appropriate path to Appium using the environment variable DEVELOPER_DIR. For example, if you have Xcode installed in /Applications/Xcode-8.3.app, you can start Appium this way:

DEVELOPER_DIR="/Applications/Xcode-8.3.app/Contents/Developer" Mobile_Testing_Supplement/bin/start-appium-1.6.4

You can use this command to find out what is set as the default Xcode installation in your system:

xcode-select -p

If Appium does not find your Xcode installation, an error message like this appears when connecting:

org.openqa.selenium.SessionNotCreatedException - A new session could not be created. (Original error: Could not find path to Xcode, environment variable DEVELOPER_DIR set to: /Applications/Xcode.app but no Xcode found)

In such a case, restart Appium by specifying a valid DEVELOPER_DIR.

To establish a test connection with a device, you need an Apple account. For evaluation you can use a free account. This has the disadvantage that created profiles are only valid for one week and must be recreated afterwards. Also be careful when sharing the account, as certificates may be revoked or invalidated by automatic generation. As a result, apps that have already been signed can no longer be used.

First, connect the device you want to use to your Mac via USB. Start Xcode and open Preferences. Go to the Accounts page and create an entry with your account. Then you can click on Manage Certificates... to see the certificates that belong to this account. To run tests you need an iOS Development Certificate and the corresponding private key. If you do not already have one, create one. If you already have one, but it is not in your keychain (indicated by "Not in Keychain"), you can import it. In any case, open the keychain management on your Mac and select the keychain Login. If you want to import a certificate from a PKCS#12 file (extension typically .p12), this can be done via the menu File > Import objects. If you do not know where the certificate is stored, you can also revoke it in Xcode and create a new one in your keychain. However, only do this if you know that the old certificate is no longer in use because it can no longer be used afterwards. Now the keychain should contain an iOS development certificate. In the right-click menu, select Information. Under the details of the certificate you will find the Team ID, which is referred to here as the Organizational Unit. Enter this in the plugin settings in the field Team-ID, see Configuration of the Plugin.

Return to Xcode and select Open... from the File menu to open the WebDriverAgent project. This can be found in the directory of the Mobile Testing Supplement under Mobile_Testing_Supplement/lib/node_modules/appium-1.6.4-beta/node_modules/appium-xcuitest-driver/WebDriverAgent/WebDriverAgent.xcodeproj'

MobileTestingWebDriverAgentXcode.png

Select WebDriverAgentLib and the General page. In the Signing section, set the Automatically manage signing option and then select a team. Now switch to WebDriverAgentRunner and also to the General page. Set automatic signing here as well and select your team here as well. Errors should be displayed here to indicate that no Provisioning Profile has been created or found. Therefore switch to the page Build Settings and search for the entry Product Bundle Identifier in the section Packaging. Change this from com.facebook.WebDriverAgentRunner to something that is accepted by Xcode by changing the prefix. Xcode can now generate a matching provisioning profile and the errors on the general page should disappear. After that you can quit Xcode.

If you now establish a connection from expecco to your device, the WebDriverAgent will be installed and started on it in order to then switch to the app to be tested. However, you still have to trust the WebDriverAgent to run on the device. To do this, during the connection setup on the device, open the settings and then the entry Device management under General. This entry is only visible if a developer app is installed on the device. You may therefore have to wait until the WebDriverAgent is installed before the entry appears. Select the entry of your Apple account and trust it. Since the WebDriverAgent will be uninstalled again if the start did not work, you have to do this during the connection setup. If this is too hectic for you, you can also execute the following code:

xcodebuild -project Mobile_Testing_Supplement/lib/node_modules/appium-1.6.4-beta/node_modules/appium-xcuitest-driver/WebDriverAgent/WebDriverAgent.xcodeproj -scheme WebDriverAgentRunner -destination 'id=<udid>' test

This installs the WebDriverAgent on the device without deleting it again. Refer to the documentation from Apple for details on installing and trusting such apps.

expecco 2.10

The Mac used should run OS X 10.11.5 (El Capitan) or later as operating system version. To automate with iOS devices up to version 9.3, it is necessary to install Xcode 7.3 that does not run on older operating systems (see also Xcode versions). Install Xcode from the App Store. Appium also requires a Java installation. To do this, install a JDK version 7 or 8. You can now install Appium 1.4.16 using our Mobile Testing Supplements for Mac OS. After you have downloaded it, you can move it to a directory of your choice (e.g. your home directory) and unpack it there. A suitable command in a shell could look like this:

tar -xvpf Mobile_Testing_Supplement_for_Mac_OS_1.0.tar.bz2

If Xcode 7.3 is your default Xcode installation, you can start Appium directly:

Mobile_Testing_Supplement/bin/start-appium-1.4.16

If Xcode 7.3 is not configured as the default Xcode, you must specify the appropriate path to Appium using the environment variable DEVELOPER_DIR. For example, if you have Xcode installed in /Applications/Xcode-7.3.app, you can start Appium this way:

DEVELOPER_DIR="/Applications/Xcode-7.3.app/Contents/Developer" Mobile_Testing_Supplement/bin/start-appium-1.4.16

You can use this command to find out what is set as the default Xcode installation in your system:

xcode-select -p

If Appium does not find your Xcode installation, an error message like this appears when connecting:

org.openqa.selenium.SessionNotCreatedException - A new session could not be created. (Original error: Could not find path to Xcode, environment variable DEVELOPER_DIR set to: /Applications/Xcode.app but no Xcode found)

In such a case, restart Appium by specifying a valid DEVELOPER_DIR.

Configuration of the Plugins

Before you get started, you should check the settings of the Mobile Testing Plugin and adjust them if necessary. Open in the menu the item "Extras"". > "Settings'"" and there under "Extensions"" the entry "Mobile Testing"" (s. fig.). By default, these paths are found automatically (1). To adjust a path manually, deactivate the corresponding check mark to the right of it. You will see a drop-down list with some paths to choose from. If an entered path is wrong or cannot be found, the field is marked red and a message appears. Make sure that all paths are specified correctly.

Konfiguration des Plugins
  • appium': Enter the path to the executable file where Appium can be started from the command line. Under Windows this file will usually be called "appium.cmd". This path is used when expecco starts an Appium server.
  • node': Enter the path to the executable file that starts Node (also called "Node.js"). This path is passed to Appium when a server is started so that Appium can find it independently of the PATH variable. Under Windows this file is usually called "node.exe".
  • JAVA_HOME': Enter the path to a JDK here. This path is passed on to each Appium server. Leave the field blank to use the value from the environment variable. To set which Java should be used by expecco, set this path in the Java Bridge settings.
  • ANDROID_HOME': Enter the path to an SDK from Android here. This path will be passed to each Appium server. Leave the field blank to use the value from the environment variable.
  • adb': This is the path to the adb command. Under Windows the file is called adb.exe. This file is used by expecco, for example, to get the list of connected devices. This path should be chosen automatically, because the command in the ANDROID_HOME directory will be used then. This is also used by Appium. If expecco and Appium use different versions of adb, conflicts may occur.
  • android.bat': This file is only needed to start the AVD and SDK manager. The file in the ANDROID_HOME directory will be searched automatically.
  • aapt: Enter the path to the aapt command here. Under Windows this file is called aapt.exe. expecco uses aapt only in the connection editor to read the package and activities of an apk file. The file in the ANDROID_HOME directory is automatically searched here.
Konfiguration des JDKs

From expecco 2.11 there is a field Team-ID. If you run iOS tests, enter the team ID of your certificate here. This is used for every iOS connection, unless you change the value in the connection settings. How to get the Team ID is described in the Installation on Mac OS with expecco 2.11 section. With expecco 2.10 you can enter the Team-ID only for each connection setting separately as capability. However, you must use the Extended View to do this. Enter here the Capability xcodeOrgId and set as value the Team-ID of the certificate.

The server address setting at the bottom of the page refers to the behavior of the connection editor. It checks at the end whether the server address ends in /wd/hub as this is the usual form. If not, a dialog asks how to react. The defined behavior can be viewed and changed here.

Also switch to the entry Java Bridge (see figure). Here you have to specify the path to your Java installation, which is used by expecco. Enter a JDK here. If you want to use the one from the Mobile Testing Supplement under Windows, the path is

C:\Program Files (x86)\exept\Mobile Testing Supplement\jdk

You can also use the system settings.

Android-Gerät vorbereiten

If you connect an Android device under Windows, you may still need an adb driver for the device. You can usually find a suitable driver on the manufacturer's website. If you have installed the universal driver from the Mobile Testing Supplement, everything should already work for most devices. In some cases, Windows will automatically try to install a driver when you connect the device for the first time.
"Attention. Before you can control a mobile device with the Appium plugin, you have to allow this debugging!


For Android devices, this option can be found in the settings under Developer Options' with the name USB Debugging. If the developer options are not displayed, you can unlock them by tapping on Build number seven times under Over the phone.


Also activate the 'Stay awake' function so that the instrument does not turn off the screen during test creation or execution.


For security reasons, USB debugging must be allowed for each computer individually. When connecting the device to the PC via USB, you must agree to the connection on the device. If you haven't done this for your computer yet, but no corresponding dialog appears on the device, it may help to unplug and reconnect the device. This can happen especially if you have installed the ADB driver while the device was already connected via USB. If this doesn't help either, open the notifications by dragging them from the top of the screen. There you will find the USB connection and you can open the options. Select another type of connection; usually MTP or PTP should work.

You can also test on an emulator. This emulator no longer needs to be prepared separately, as it is already designed for USB debugging. It is even possible to start an emulator at the beginning of the test.

To check whether a device that you have connected to your computer can be used, open the Connection Editor. The device should be displayed there.

Connection via WLAN

It is also possible to connect Android devices via WLAN. To do this, you must first connect the device to the computer via USB. Then open the command prompt and type "enter":

adb tcpip 5555

The device listens for a TCP/IP connection on port 5555. If you have several devices connected or emulators running, you have to specify which device you mean. Enter in this case:

adb devices -l

The system displays a list of all devices, with the first column being their ID. Instead, write

adb -s <device identification> tcpip 5555

with the device identification of the desired device. You can now disconnect the USB connection. Now you have to find out the IP address of your device. You can usually find it somewhere in the device's settings, for example in the Status or WLAN settings. Then type it in:

adb connect <IP address of the device>

The device should now be connected via WLAN and can be used in the same way as with a USB connection. You can check this by entering adb devices -l again or open the connection dialog in expecco. In the list the device appears with its IP address and port. Remember that the WLAN connection is no longer established when the ADB server or the device is restarted.

Prepare iOS device and app

Control of iOS devices is only possible via a Mac. Please also read the section Installation under Mac OS.

Before you can control a mobile device with the Mobile Testing Plugin, you must allow debugging for iOS devices with iOS 8 or higher. Activate the option Enable UI Automation under the menu Developer in the device settings. If you cannot find the Developer entry in the settings, proceed as follows: Connect the device to the Mac via USB. If necessary, you must still agree to the connection on the device. Start Xcode and then select Devices from the menu bar at the top of the screen in the Window menu. A window opens in which a list of the connected devices is displayed. Select your device there. Then the entry Developer should appear in the settings on the device. You may have to exit the settings and restart.

Beispiel für einen Alert unter iOS

It is not possible to establish a connection to the device as long as it shows certain alerts. Such an alert may appear if FaceTime is activated by displaying a message about SMS charges (see screenshot). Be sure to configure the device so that it does not show such alerts when idle.

expecco 2.11 and later

You can test any apps that are executable or already installed on the device used. If the app is available as a development build, the UDID of the device must be stored in the app. In any case, the WebDriverAgent must be signed for the device. Please read the section Preparation under Mac OS.

If you want to use the Home button in a test, you must activate AssistiveTouch on the device. You will find this option in the settings under General > Operating aids' > AssistiveTouch. Then place the menu in the middle of the upper edge of the screen. You can then record pressing the Home button with the corresponding menu entry in the recorder or use the Press Home Button block directly.

expecco 2.10

The app you want to use must be available as a development build. The UDID of the device must also be stored in the app.

Signing a Development Build

A development build of an app is only allowed for a limited number of devices and cannot be started on other devices. However, it is possible to exchange the certificate and the usable devices in a development build.

  • Evaluation with demo app of eXept:

We are happy to provide you with a demo app which is available as a development build and which we can sign for your device. Please send the UDID of your device to your eXept contact person. How to determine the UDID of your device is described in the following section.

  • Use your own app for your test device:
If you receive a development build (IPA file) from the app developers that is approved for your test device, you can use it directly. To do this, you must tell the developers the UDID of your device so they can enter it. You can use Xcode to read the UDID of a device. Start Xcode and select Devices from the menu bar at the top of the screen in the Window menu. A window opens in which a list of the connected devices is displayed. Select your device and search for the Identifier entry in Properties. The UDID is a 40-digit hexadecimal number.
  • Externally developed app for your test device:

You can also re-sign apps to make them run on other devices. However, this process is complicated and requires access to an Apple Developer account. A documentation on the procedure is currently in preparation.

For the evaluation we support you gladly with the re-signing of your App.

For more information about using iOS devices, see the Appium Documentation.

Native iOS Apps

You can also use apps that are already natively present on the device. To do this, you must know their bundle ID and then enter it in the connection settings. Here is a small selection of common apps:

App Bundle ID
App Store com.apple.AppStore
Calculator com.apple.calculator
Calendar com.apple.mobilecal
Camera com.apple.camera
Contacts com.apple.MobileAddressBook
iTunes Store com.apple.MobileStore
Mail com.apple.mobilemail
Maps com.apple.Maps
Messages com.apple.MobileSMS
Phone com.apple.mobilephone
Photos com.apple.mobileslideshow
Settings com.apple.Preferences

Further bundle IDs can be found here.

Examples

In the demo test suites for expecco you will also find examples for tests with the Mobile Testing Plugin. Select the option Example from file on the start screen and open the folder mobile.

m01_MobileTestingDemo.ets

The test suite contains two simple test plans: "Simple CalculatorTest" and "Complex Calculator and Messaging Test". Both tests use an Android emulator, which you must start before starting. The apps used in the test are part of the basic equipment of the emulator and therefore no longer need to be installed. Since the apps may differ under every Android version, it is important that your emulator runs under Android 6.0. In addition, the language must be set to English.

Simple CalculatorTest

This test connects to the calculator and enters the formula 2+3. The result of the calculator is compared with the expected value 5.


Complex Calculator and Messaging Test

This test connects to the calculator and then opens the message service. There it waits for an incoming message from the number 15555215556, in which a formula to be calculated is sent. The message is generated before via a socket at the emulator. When the message arrives, it is opened by the test and its contents are read. Then the calculator is opened again, the received formula is entered and the result is read. The test then switches back to the message service and sends the result as an answer.

m02_expeccoMobileDemo.ets and m03_expeccoMobileDemoIOS.ets

These are part of the tutorial for the Mobile Testing Plugin. The included test case is incomplete and will be added during the tutorial. Please read the section Tutorial.

Tutorial

This tutorial describes the basic procedure for creating tests with the Mobile Testing Plugin. The basis for this is a supplied example consisting of a simple app and an expecco test suite.

The expecco Mobile Demo app calculates and checks various everyday codes: the IBAN from European payment transactions, the international GTIN 13 product codes found in retail bar codes, and the serial numbers on euro banknotes.

The test-suite contains test cases for individual functions of the app. Not all functions are covered yet, but will be added in the course of the tutorial.

There are two versions of this tutorial:

The procedure is almost identical in both versions, only the connection configurations are created differently. The finished tests then differ essentially in the paths for addressing the elements used, since these are technology-dependent.

First steps with Android

It is assumed that you have already read the chapter Installation und Aufbau and completed the necessary preparations for the use of Android devices under Windows.

Step 1: Execute demo

Start expecco and open the test-suite m02_expeccoMobileDemo.ets via the button Example from file (fig. 1). As of expecco 2.11 this is located in the subfolder mobile. This test-suite already contains a ready-made test plan with some test cases for this app.

Abb. 1: Beispiel-Testsuite öffnen



In the test suite the package of the demo app is included as an attachment (expeccoMobileDemo-debug.apk). Using the provided module Export Demo App you can export the file to any location on your computer. Select the device (1) and click on the green play button (2) to execute the device (fig. 2). The block opens a file dialog in which you specify where the package should be saved.

Abb. 2: App exportieren


Before we get into the rest of the test-suite, first configure the connection and which device you want to use. To do this, connect a device to your computer via USB or start an emulator.

Abb. 3: Verbindungseditor öffnen


Now open the GUI browser (1) and select the entry Mobile Testing (3) under Connect (2) (Fig. 3) to open the connection dialog.

You will see a list of all connected Android devices (1) (Fig. 3). If your device does not appear in the list, make sure it is turned on and connected via USB. Otherwise read the section Prepare Android Device]

Abb. 4: Gerät im Verbindungsdialog auswählen


Once you have found your device in the list, select it and click 'Next' (2).

Next, specify which app you want to use (Fig. 5). You can choose if you want to start an app that is already installed on the device (App on the device) or if you want to install and start an app (Install app). In case you want to use an already installed app, you will get a list of all packages installed on the device (1), which are divided into system packages and foreign packages (2), as well as their activities (3). You can then simply select these in the respective fields.

Abb. 5: Auf dem Gerät installierte App angeben


For this tutorial the app you just exported from the test-suite should be installed. Select Install App and enter the appropriate path in App (1) (Fig. 6). You can use the button on the left (2) to open a file dialog where you can navigate to the file to enter it. The package (3) and the activity (4) of the app will be entered automatically. If the app has multiple activities, you can select the one you want. Now click on Next (5).

Abb. 6: App angeben, die auf dem Gerät installiert werden soll


On the last page you can see an overview of all previous data (1) (Fig. 7). Below, you can enter a name for the connection under which it will be displayed in the GUI browser (2). In addition, a connection can be identified by this name and used in blocks; the name must therefore be unique. If you do not specify a name, one is generated generically. Enter expeccoMobileDemo as the name. Enter the address for the Appium server in the field below (3). Appium is the interface, via which the connected devices are controlled. For this tutorial expecco manages the instances of the Appium server. Enter the local default address http://localhost:4723/wd/hub. This is always the lowest entry in the proposal list. In addition the option Start if necessary is activated (4). expecco then checks if an Appium server is already running at the address and starts and ends it automatically if necessary. If the port 4723 is already occupied or if you want to use several connections at the same time, use a different port at this point. It is common to use the odd port numbers above 4723, i.e. 4725, 4727 and so on. Of course you can also use remote servers, but the automatic start and stop of a server can only be done locally by expecco.

Abb. 7: Verbindungsnamen und Appium-Server konfigurieren


Now click on Save (5) to save the settings for the test execution. Settings can be saved as an attachment to an execution definition or to an external file (Fig. 8). If you have several projects open at the same time, you can select the project in which the attachment is to be created from the list. Click on Save in the Save settings in attachment area and enter expeccoMobileDemo as the name. Now click on Start server and connect (6) to establish a connection with the specified configuration.

Abb. 8: Einstellungen speichern


It may take a while to establish the connection. Wait until the connection is established and displayed in the GUI browser. You will see that the app is started on the device. Now you know that the configuration works. The saved settings should now be used for the test, which then establishes the same connection. Select the connection in the GUI browser, right-click and select 'Close Connection' from the context menu to avoid any conflict. Then switch back to the test-suite tab.

In the test suite, the settings were created as an appendix expeccoMobileDemo (Fig 9). Select the Connect block (1) and switch to the Network view on the right (2). Drag and drop the settings into the network of the block (3). Connect the output pin pathName with the input pin stringOrFilename[1] of the block Connect from File (4). Confirm the changes with Apply (5). This block will establish the connection to the app at the beginning of the test.

Abb. 9: Verbindungsbaustein editieren


Now switch to the test plan Demo Test (1) (Fig. 10). This test plan already contains some finished test cases. Before and after the execution (2) one block is also entered: The just edited block Connect for the setup and the block Disconnect for the disconnection. By entering the two blocks at this point, the connection is terminated, especially if the test is aborted prematurely, e.g. because one of the test cases fails.

Abb. 10: Testplanausführung


Now you can start the test plan Demo Test by clicking on the green Play button (3). The test plan should run without errors.

Step 2: Create a block with the recorder

With the help of the integrated recorder, you can easily record execution sequences and store them in a block. This requires a connection to a test device, which is used to create the test.

To establish a connection, switch back to the GUI browser. The connection that you created previously is still entered here. Since the same name was used for the connection in the test run, the settings were overwritten (in our case, the settings were identical anyway). The connection is currently not active, since it was terminated at the end of the execution. However, the settings are still entered there. To reestablish the connection with this configuration, select it, right-click it, and then Connect.

Wait until the connection is established (1) and then press the record button (2) to start recording (Fig. 11).

Abb. 11: Recorder starten


A window opens with the Mobile Testing Recorder (Fig. 12). This shows a screenshot of the connected device. This screen allows you to control the device remotely. Every action you perform is recorded in the background.

In the upper menu bar, you can select the tool (1) with which you want to enter an action. The tool Auto is selected by default. You can use it to record certain actions by making gestures on the display with the mouse pointer. For example, if you left-click for a long time, this corresponds to a long tap on the element at this point. Instead of specifying the desired action with the corresponding gesture, you can also select it manually.

A new test for the recognition of correct GTIN-13 codes should now be recorded. First click briefly on the button GTIN-13 (EAN-13) (2) of the app in the display to trigger a corresponding click on the device. During the execution of this action, the frame of the recorder will briefly turn red. If the recorder does not display the current view of the app afterwards, click on the update icon (3) in the recorder.

Abb. 12: Über Recorder zur GTIN-13-Activity wechseln


Then enter a correct GTIN-13 in the input field of the new page. To do this, right-click on the input field (1) and select the action Set text (2) in the context menu (Fig. 13). Enter any valid article number in GTIN-13 format, e.g. 4006381333986 (3). This text is now set in the app.

Abb. 13: GTIN-13-Code über Recorder eingeben


Now click on Verify (1) (Fig. 14). The app now displays OK (2) as the result. The test should determine whether this result is actually displayed. After a right click you can select the action Assure attribute (3) in the context menu. In the dialog that opens, select the property text (4) and confirm with OK (5). This time, no action is triggered on the device, but only a block is recorded that fails if the result deviates from the expected value OK.

Abb. 14: Antwort der App über Recorder auslesen


Now close the recorder. In the workspace of the GUI browser you can see that a block has been created for each of the recorded actions (Fig. 15). You can now test whether the recorded action can be played back. To do this, you must first return the app on your device to its initial state by using the HOME button on the top right of the device. Then click in expecco on the green Play button (1). If everything turns green, the execution was successful. Now create a new block in the test-suite by clicking on the block symbol (2) in the upper right corner. Give it the name GTIN_Verify_OK (3) and confirm (4).

Abb. 15: Neuen Baustein aus Arbeitsbereich exportieren


Now close the connection by selecting the connection, right-clicking and selecting 'Close connection' from the context menu.

Switch back to the Testsuite tab. The new module was created there. Again select the test plan Demo-Test and add the recorded test case GTIN_Verify_OK by drag-and-drop at the end of the test plan. Apply the change and restart. The test plan should run again without errors.

Step 3: Customize XPath using the GUI browser

Your new device may not work on other devices. The elements used are addressed via an XPath and this cannot be correct on other devices. See the #XPath_Customizing_Using_the_GUI_Browser_To_Customize_XPath Using the GUI Browsersection for more information. If you have another device available, you can now try to generalize the paths in your created devices. You can also skip this step.

If you find it difficult to find shortened paths, follow the paths of the existing blocks. Start the test again. If the test now fails, check the paths again in the GUI browser. To run the test on a second device, open in the menu Extensions > Mobile Testing > Create connection settings. You will get a dialog similar to the connection dialog. However, you can only create and save settings but not establish a connection. However, you have the option to save individual aspects of the settings, such as only the device. Select the new device and click on the Save icon in the attachment until the delayed menu opens (Fig. 16). Select 'Save device settings' here. It is best to name the attachment after the device. You can then close the dialog again.

Abb. 16: Einstellungen für ein Gerät speichern


Select the Connect block and drag the settings for the new device into its network. Now connect its output pin pathName with the input pin stringOrFilename[2] of the block Connect from File. The block Connect from File reads the information at the input pins from top to bottom, multiple properties are replaced. In this case, the settings for the device used are replaced, while the other settings remain the same. If you have chosen the paths skilfully, the test will now also run successfully on the other device.

Step 4: Create another block

If the same procedures are repeated in the test, you can reuse or modify blocks that have already been created for this purpose. The block created in step 2 checks the recognition of correct GTIN 13 codes. A test is still missing which, conversely, checks the detection of a wrong GTIN-13 code. The structure of the two tests is identical, they only differ in their parameters. Therefore, copy the block GTIN_Verify_OK and rename the copy to GTIN_Verify_NOT_OK. Change the input of the GTIN-13 to a wrong code, for example by changing the last digit (4006381333987) and set the check value of the output to NOT OK (Fig. 17).

Abb. 17: Baustein editieren


Add this new test to the Test Plan Demo Test as well and place it at the end. Run the test plan, but don't forget to disconnect in the GUI browser first.

The new test will fail because the device you added does not return to the start page of the app, but the tests start from there. This is already considered in the other blocks; they always execute the block Back to main menu at the end. You can see this by selecting one of the other blocks, e.g. GTIN_Calculate, and switching to its schematic view. There the block Back to main menu is displayed in the field After execution (Fig. 18). As with the corresponding field in the test plan, this block is always executed at the end, regardless of whether the test is successful or aborted. Now add this entry to your blocks GTIN_Verify_OK and GTIN_Verify_NOT_OK. Select the block and drag the block Back to main menu in the schema view to the input field After execution. Now you can start the test plan and all tests should be executed again without any problems.

Abb. 18: Nach-Ausführungs-Baustein setzen


Step 5: Complete the test

For the Activity IBAN all answer possibilities of the app are already covered with test cases. In the GTIN-13-Activity a correct and a faulty code are tested and a check digit is calculated, but the behaviour of the app in case of input of wrong length is not tested yet (With Verify 'Input must be exactly 13 digits. and ...12 digits. for Calculate). The activity for checking the serial numbers of euro banknotes is not yet tested. As with the IBAN, three cases can occur here: a correct serial number was entered (answer: OK), an incorrect serial number was entered (answer: NOT OK) or the specification does not correspond to the format (answer: A serial number consists of 12 characters with the first one or two being capital letters (A-Z).). You can now extend the test coverage by creating test cases. You can create the blocks for this with the recorder as in step 2 and generalize the XPaths if necessary. If you are familiar with the basic handling of expecco, you can of course also create blocks without recorder by manually assembling them from existing blocks of the library. You can also combine both approaches as you wish.

Note that the test cases presented here only check individual entries. If you write test cases for your own apps, you will probably want to test more closely by entering more different values, including edge cases.

Erste Schritte mit iOS

It is assumed that you have already read the chapter Installation und Aufbau and completed the necessary preparations for using iOS devices under Mac OS. Connect the device you want to use to the Mac. Download the iOS version of the expeccoMobileDemo app to your Mac. Since the app is a debug build, you still need to sign it for your device (see iOS_device and Prepare App). Now start an Appium server on the Mac.

Step 1: Run a Demo

Start expecco and open the test-suite m03_expeccoMobileDemoIOS.ets via the button Example from file (fig. 1). As of expecco 2.11 this is located in the subfolder mobile. Otherwise download the test-suite m03_expeccoMobileDemoIOS.ets to the computer where your expecco installation is located and open it. In this test-suite there is already a ready-made test plan with some test cases for this app.

Abb. 1: Beispiel-Testsuite öffnen


Before we get into the rest of the test-suite, first configure the connection and which device you want to use. Now open the GUI browser (1) and select the entry Mobile Testing (3) under Connect (2) (Fig. 2) to open the connection dialog.

Abb. 2: Verbindungseditor öffnen


Here you can enter an iOS device only by hand. Select Enter iOS device (Fig. 3). The name and iOS version of the device can be found in its properties. To find out the device ID of the device, open the Devices (Command-Shift-2) window in Xcode on the Mac. All connected devices and the available simulators are displayed there. Here you can also see the device ID (udid) of your device and which apps have been installed. After you have entered the device in the connection editor, select it in the list and click Next.

Abb. 3: Hinzufügen eines iOS-Geräts


Next, specify which app you want to use. You can choose whether you want to start an app that is already installed on the device (App on the device) or if you want to install and start an app (Install app). In case you want to use an already installed app, you have to specify its bundle ID. You will also find this in the Devices window of Xcode. For the demo app it is de.exept.expeccoMobileDemo.

For this tutorial the demo app has to be installed first. Select Install App and enter the path to the file on your Mac (fig. 4). If you are using expecco 2.11, you can also specify the Team-ID on this page, which specifies which certificate should be used for iOS connections. If you have already specified an ID in Plugin Settings, it will be used. It will be grayed out unless you specify another value. Now click on Next.

Abb. 4: App angeben, die auf dem Gerät installiert werden soll


On the last page you can see an overview of all previous data (1) (Fig. 5). Below the Capabilities list, you can enter a name for the connection under which it is displayed in the GUI browser (2). In addition, a connection can be identified by this name and used in blocks; the name must therefore be unique. If you do not specify a name, one is generated generically. Enter expeccoMobileDemo as the name. Enter the address for the Appium server in the field below (3). If you have started the Appium server with default settings, you only have to replace localhost in the default address (lowest entry of the suggestion list) with the IP address of the Mac (in the picture 172.23.1.49). To make sure which port the Appium server is listening on, see its output. At the beginning there is the line

info: Appium REST http interface listener started on 0.0.0.0:4723

If the default port 4723 does not appear at the end, change this value accordingly in the configuration.

If the option Start on demand (4) is activated, expecco checks if an Appium server is already running at the address and starts and terminates it automatically if necessary. However, this is only possible for local server addresses, so deactivate this option.

Abb. 5: Verbindungsnamen und Appium-Server konfigurieren


Now click on Save (5) to save the settings for the test execution. Settings can be saved as an attachment to an execution definition or to an external file (Fig. 6). If you have several projects open at the same time, you can select the project in which the attachment is to be created from the list. Click on Save in the Save settings in attachment area and enter expeccoMobileDemo as the name. Now click on Connect (6) to establish a connection with the specified configuration.

Abb. 6: Einstellungen speichern


It may take a while to establish the connection. If you have entered the correct server address, you should see the connection attempt in the Appium server output. The app should be started on your iOS device. If nothing happens on the device, either the device or the app may not be found. If Appium tries to start the app and this fails, the app is probably signed incorrectly. In this case, uninstall the app so that it can be reinstalled with a new signature.

Wait until the connection is established and displayed in the GUI browser. Now you know that the configuration works. The saved settings should now be used for the test, which then establishes the same connection. Select the connection in the GUI browser, right-click and select 'Close Connection' from the context menu to avoid any conflict. Then switch back to the test-suite tab.

In the test-suite, the settings were created as an appendix expeccoMobileDemo (Fig 7). Select the Connect block (1) and switch to the Network view on the right (2). Drag and drop the settings into the network of the block (3). Connect the output pin pathName with the input pin stringOrFilename[1] of the block Connect from File (4). Confirm the changes with Apply (5). This block will establish the connection to the app at the beginning of the test.


Abb. 7: Verbindungsbaustein editieren


Now switch to the test plan Demo Test (1) (Fig. 8). This test plan already contains some finished test cases. Before and after the execution (2) one block is also entered: The just edited block Connect for the setup and the block Disconnect for the disconnection. By entering the two blocks at this point, the connection is terminated, especially if the test is aborted prematurely, e.g. because one of the test cases fails.

Abb. 8: Testplanausführung


Now you can start the test plan Demo Test by clicking on the green Play button (3). The test plan should run without errors.

Step 2: Create a block with the recorder

With the help of the integrated recorder, you can easily record execution sequences and store them in a block. This requires a connection to a test device, which is used to create the test.

To establish a connection, switch back to the GUI browser. The connection that you created previously is still entered in this browser. Since the same name was used for the connection in the test run, the settings were overwritten with it (in our case, the settings were identical anyway). The connection is currently not active, since it was terminated at the end of the execution. However, the settings are still entered there. To reestablish the connection with this configuration, select it, right-click it, and then Connect.

Wait until the connection is established (1), then press the record button (2) to start recording (Fig. 9).

Abb. 9: Recorder starten


A window opens with the Mobile Testing Recorder (Fig. 10). This shows a screenshot of the connected device. This screen allows you to control the device remotely. Every action you perform is recorded in the background.

In the upper menu bar you can select the tool (1) with which you want to enter an action. The Auto tool is selected by default. You can use it to record certain actions by making gestures on the display with the mouse pointer. For example, if you left-click for a long time, this corresponds to a long tap on the element at this point. Instead of specifying the desired action with the corresponding gesture, you can also select it manually.

A new test for the recognition of correct GTIN-13 codes should now be recorded. First click briefly on the button GTIN-13 (EAN-13) (2) of the app in the display to trigger a corresponding click on the device. During the execution of this action, the frame of the recorder will briefly turn red. If the recorder does not display the current view of the app afterwards, click on the update icon (3) in the recorder.

Abb. 10: Über Recorder zur GTIN-13-Activity wechseln


Then enter a correct GTIN-13 in the input field of the new page. To do this, right-click on the input field (1) and select the action Set text (2) in the context menu (Fig. 11). Enter any valid article number in GTIN-13 format, e.g. 4006381333986 (3). This text is now set in the app.

Abb. 11: GTIN-13-Code über Recorder eingeben


Now click on Verify (1) (Fig. 12). The app now displays OK (2) as the result. The test should determine whether this result is actually displayed. After a right click you can select the action Assure attribute (3) in the context menu. In the dialog that opens, select the property value (4) and confirm with OK (5). This time, no action is triggered on the device, but only a block is recorded that fails if the result deviates from the expected value OK.

Abb. 12: Antwort der App über Recorder auslesen


Now close the recorder. In the workspace of the GUI browser you can see that a block has been created for each of the recorded actions (Fig. 13). You can now test whether the recorded action can be played back. To do this, you must first return the app on your device to its initial state by using the Home button on the top left of the device. Then click in expecco on the green Play button (1). If everything turns green, the execution was successful. Now create a new block in the test-suite by clicking on the block symbol (2) in the upper right corner. Give it the name GTIN_Verify_OK (3) and confirm (4).

Abb. 13: Neuen Baustein aus Arbeitsbereich exportieren


Now close the connection by selecting the connection, right-clicking and selecting 'Close connection' from the context menu.

Switch back to the Testsuite tab. The new module was created there. Again select the test plan Demo-Test and add the recorded test case GTIN_Verify_OK by drag-and-drop at the end of the test plan. Apply the change and restart. The test plan should run again without errors.

Step 3: Customize XPath using the GUI browser

Your new device may not work on other devices. The elements used are addressed via an XPath and this cannot be correct on other devices. See the #XPath_Customizing_Using_the_GUI_Browser_To_Customize_XPath Using the GUI Browser section for more information. If you have another device available, you can now try to generalize the paths in your created devices. You can also skip this step.

If you find it difficult to find shortened paths, follow the paths of the existing blocks. Start the test again. If the test now fails, check the paths again in the GUI browser. To run the test on a second device, open in the menu Extensions > Mobile Testing > Create connection settings. You will get a dialog similar to the connection dialog. However, you can only create and save settings but not establish a connection. However, you have the option to save individual aspects of the settings, such as only the device. Enter the new device and select it. Click longer on the symbol for saving in the attachment until the delayed menu opens and select Save device settings here (Fig. 14). It is best to name the attachment after the device. You can then close the dialog again.

Abb. 14: Einstellungen für ein Gerät speichern


Select the Connect block and drag the settings for the new device into its network. Now connect its output pin pathName with the input pin stringOrFilename[2] of the block Connect from File. The block Connect from File reads the information at the input pins from top to bottom, multiple properties are replaced. In this case, the settings for the device used are replaced, while the other settings remain the same. If you have chosen the paths skilfully, the test will now also run successfully on the other device.

Step 4: Create another block

If the same procedures are repeated in the test, you can reuse or modify modules that have already been created for this purpose. The block created in step 2 checks the recognition of correct GTIN 13 codes. A test is still missing which, conversely, checks the detection of a wrong GTIN-13 code. The structure of the two tests is identical, they only differ in their parameters. Therefore copy the block GTIN_Verify_OK and rename the copy to GTIN_Verify_NOT_OK. Change the input of the GTIN-13 to a wrong code, for example by changing the last digit (4006381333987) and set the check value of the output to NOT OK (Fig. 15).

Abb. 15: Baustein editieren


Add this new test to the Test Plan Demo Test as well and place it at the end. Run the test plan, but don't forget to disconnect in the GUI browser first.

The new test will fail because the device you added does not return to the start page of the app, but the tests start from there. This is already considered in the other blocks; they always execute the block Back to main menu at the end. You can see this by selecting one of the other blocks, e.g. GTIN_Calculate, and switching to its schematic view. There the block Back to main menu is displayed in the field After execution (Fig. 16). As with the corresponding field in the test plan, this block is always executed at the end, regardless of whether the test is successful or aborted. Now add this entry to your blocks GTIN_Verify_OK and GTIN_Verify_NOT_OK. Select the block and drag the block Back to main menu in the schema view to the input field After execution. Now you can start the test plan and all tests should be executed again without any problems.

Abb. 16: Nach-Ausführungs-Baustein setzen


Step 5: Complete the test

For the Activity IBAN all answer possibilities of the app are already covered with test cases. In the GTIN-13-Activity a correct and a faulty code are tested and a check digit is calculated, but the behaviour of the app in case of input of wrong length is not tested yet (With Verify 'Input must be exactly 13 digits. and ...12 digits. for Calculate). The activity for checking the serial numbers of euro banknotes is not yet tested. As with the IBAN, three cases can occur here: a correct serial number was entered (answer: OK), an incorrect serial number was entered (answer: NOT OK) or the specification does not correspond to the format (answer: A serial number consists of 12 characters with the first one or two being capital letters (A-Z).). You can now extend the test coverage by creating test cases. You can create the blocks for this with the recorder as in step 2 and generalize the XPaths if necessary. If you are familiar with the basic handling of expecco, you can of course also create blocks without recorder by manually assembling them from existing blocks of the library. You can also combine both approaches as you wish.

Note that the test cases presented here only check individual entries. If you write test cases for your own apps, you will probably want to test more closely by entering more different values, including edge cases.

Dialoges of Mobile Testing Plugins

Connection editor

You can use the Connection Editor to quickly define, change, or establish connections. Depending on the task, the dialog has small differences and is opened differently:

  • If you want to establish a connection, you can access the dialog in the GUI browser by clicking on Connect and then selecting Mobile Testing.
  • To change or copy an existing connection in the GUI browser, select it, right-click and select 'Edit Connection' or 'Copy Connection' from the context menu.
  • If you do not want to create connection settings for the GUI browser but for use in a test, select Create connection settings... from the menu of the Mobile Testing Plugin. Only the settings for a connection can be created without creating a connection in the GUI browser.

Note that the test cases presented here only check individual entries. If you write test cases for your own apps, you will probably want to test more closely by entering more different values, including edge cases.

The Connection Editor menu has several buttons, some of which are only visible when creating connection settings: MobileTestingVerbindungseditorMenu.png

  1. Clear settings: Resets all entries. (Only visible when creating settings.)
  2. Load settings from file: Allows to open a saved settings file (*.csf). Its settings are transferred to the dialog. Entries already made without conflict are retained.
  3. Load settings from attachment: Allows opening an attachment with connection settings from an open project. These settings are applied to the dialog. Entries already made without conflict are retained.
  4. Save settings to file and
  5. Save settings to attachment: Here you can save the entered settings to a file (*.csf) or create them as an attachment in an open project. Both options have a delayed menu in which you can choose to save only a certain part of the settings. (Only visible when creating settings.)
  6. Advanced View: Allows you to switch to the advanced view to make additional settings. Read more about this at the end of this chapter. (Only visible when creating settings.)
  7. Help: On the right side a help text for the respective step is shown or hidden.

The dialog is divided into three steps. In the first step you select the device you want to use, in the second step you select which App should be used and in the last step the settings for the Appium server are made.

Step 1: Select Device

In the upper part you will see a list of all connected Appium devices that are detected. With the checkbox below you can hide devices that are detected but not ready. If you want to enter a device that is not connected, you can create it with the corresponding button Enter Android device or Enter iOS device. However, you need to know the required properties of your device. The device is then created in a second device list and can be selected there. If no list with connected elements can be displayed, various messages are displayed instead:

  • No devices found
    expecco couldn't find any Android devices
    To automatically configure a connection to a device, make sure that it has
    • is connected to
    • is turned on
    • has installed a suitable adb driver
    • is enabled for debugging (see below).
  • No available devices found
    expecco couldn't find any available Android devices. But not available ones were found, e.g. with the status "unauthorized".
    To automatically configure a connection to a device, make sure that it has
    • is connected to
    • is turned on
    • has installed a suitable adb driver
    • is enabled for debugging (see below).
    To view unavailable devices, enable this option below.
  • Connection lost
    expecco has lost the connection to the adb server. Try to re-establish the connection by clicking on the button.
  • Connection failed
    expecco could not connect to the adb server. Possibly it is not running or the given path is not correct.
    Check the adb configuration in the settings and try to start the adb server and establish a connection by clicking on the button.
  • Connect ...
    expecco connects to the adb server. This may take a few seconds.
  • start adb server ...
    expecco starts the adb server. This may take a few seconds.

With Next you get to the next step. If you enter settings for the GUI browser, this is only possible after a device has been selected.

Annotation for unlocking: In newer Android versions the developer options are no longer offered in the settings. If your Android device does not show an entry for "Developer options" in the settings, first select the entry "Phone info"", then "SoftwareVersionsInfo"" and click on the entry "BuildVersion"" several times.

Step 2: Choose App

Here you can enter information about the app to be tested. You can decide if you want to use an app that is already installed on the device or if you want to install an app for the test. Select the appropriate tab above. Depending on whether you selected an Android or an iOS device in the previous step, the required input will change.

  • Android
    • App on the Device
    If you have selected a connected device in the first step, the packages of all installed apps are automatically retrieved and you can select from the drop-down lists. The installed apps are divided into third-party packages and system packages; select the appropriate package list. This selection does not belong to the settings, but only provides the corresponding package list. You can use the filter to further narrow down the list and then select the desired package. The activities of the selected package are also automatically retrieved and made available as a drop-down list. Select the activity you want to start. As a rule, an activity is automatically entered from the list. If you are not using a connected device, you must enter the package and the activity manually.
    • Install the App
    In the "App" field, enter the path to an app. The path must be valid for the Appium server being used. You can also specify a URL. If you are using a local Appium server, you can use the right button to navigate to the App installation file and enter this path. If possible, the corresponding package and the activity are also entered in the fields below. However, this entry is not necessary.
  • iOS
    • App on the device
    Specify the bundle ID of an installed app. For example, you can find out the IDs of the installed apps by using Xcode. Start Xcode and select Devices from the menu bar at the top of the screen in the Window menu. A window will open displaying a list of connected devices. If you select your device, you will see a list of the apps you have installed in the overview.
    • Install the App
    In the "App" field, enter the path to an app. The path must be valid for the Appium server being used. You can also specify a URL. For the requirements of apps for real devices please read the section iOS-Geräte und App vorbereiten.

In the lower part you can specify whether the app should be reset or uninstalled when the connection is terminated, and whether it should be reset initially. Again, the corresponding capability is not set if you select (Default). With Next you get to the next step.

Step 3: Server Settings

In the last step, a list of all the capabilities that result from your entries in the previous steps is first displayed in the upper part. If you are familiar with Appium and want to set additional capabilities that are not covered by the connection editor, you can click on Edit to open the extended view. See the section below for more information.

If you enter settings for the GUI browser, you can enter the Connection name with which the connection is displayed. This is also the name under which devices can use this connection when it is established. If you leave the field blank, a name will be generated. To specify the address for the Appium server, you get the local default address and addresses already used for selection. If you check the box for Start on demand, expecco tries to start an Appium server at the given address when connecting, if none is running there yet. This server will then also be shut down when the connection is terminated. This only works for local addresses. Make sure that you only use port numbers that are free. It is best to only use odd port numbers from the standard port 4723. The following port number is also used when establishing a connection, which could otherwise lead to conflicts.

Depending on how you opened the dialog, there are now different buttons to close it. In any case you have the option to save. This opens a dialog where you can either select an open project to save the settings there as an attachment, or select to save it to a file that you can then specify. Saving does not close the dialog, allowing you to select another option.

If you have opened the editor for establishing a connection, you can finally click on Connect or Start and connect server, depending on whether the check mark for server start is set. For changing or copying a connection in the GUI Browser, this option is called Apply, since in this case only the connection entry is changed or newly created, but the connection setup is not started. If necessary, you can do this afterwards via the context menu. If you have changed capabilities of an existing connection, a dialog then prompts you to decide whether these changes should be applied directly by closing the connection and establishing the new connection or not. In this case, the changes only take effect after you reestablish the connection.

To use the connection editor, also read the corresponding section in the respective tutorial in step 1 (Android: Demo ausführen, iOS: Demo ausführen).

Extended View=

The extended view of the connection editor can be obtained either by clicking on Edit in the third step or at any time via the corresponding menu item if you have started the editor via the plugin menu. This view displays a list of all configured Appium Capabilities. You can add, change or remove further entries to this list. To add a capability, select it from the drop-down list of the input field. In this list all known capabilities are sorted into the categories Common, Android and iOS. If you have selected a capability, a short information text is displayed. You can also enter a capability manually in the field. Then click on Add to add the capability to the list. There you can set the value in the right column. To delete an entry, select it and click on Remove. With Back you leave the extended view.

MobileTestingErweiterteAnsicht.png

Running Appium Servers

In the menu of the Mobile Testing Plugin you will find the entry Appium-Server.... This opens a window with an overview of all Appium servers started by expecco and on which port they are running. By clicking on the icon in the column Show log you can view the logfile of the corresponding server. This is deleted when the server is shut down. With the icons in the column Exit the corresponding server can be terminated. However, this is prevented if expecco still has an open connection via this server.

You can also start servers here. Use the input fields to configure the server address. You can also leave the fields blank to use the default values. Please note that servers can only be started locally and the selected port must not be occupied. Typically the odd port numbers from 4723 are used. The following port number is also required when connecting to a device, which could lead to conflicts with the even numbers.

MobileTestingAppiumServer.png

In the menu of the Mobile Testing Plugin you will also find the entry Close all connections and servers. This is intended for cases where connections or servers cannot be terminated in any other way. If possible, always terminate connections in the GUI browser or by executing a corresponding block. Servers that you have started in the server overview should be terminated there; servers that were started with a connection are automatically terminated with this connection.

Note that only servers started and managed by expecco are listed in the overview. Possible other Appium servers that were started in another way are not recognized.

Recorder

If the GUI browser is connected to a device, the integrated recorder can be used to record a test section with that device. To start the recorder, select the appropriate connection in the GUI browser and click the Record button. A new window opens for the recorder. The recorded actions are created in the GUI browser work area. It is therefore possible to edit the recorded data in parallel.

MobileTestingRecorder.png

components of the recorder window
  1. Update': Fetches the current image and element tree from the device. This becomes necessary when the device takes longer to perform an action or when something changes without being triggered by the recorder.
  2. Follow-Mouse': The item under the mouse pointer is selected in the GUI browser.
  3. Element Highlighting: The element under the mouse pointer is bordered in red.
  4. Draw elements': The frames of all elements of the view are displayed.
  5. Tools': Selection of which tool is to be used. The selected action is triggered by clicking on the display. The following actions are available:
    • Aktions on Elements:
      • Click: Short click on the element over which the cursor is positioned. Use the Follow-Mouse or Highlight-Selected function to determine which element is used.
      • Tap element: Similar to clicking, except that the duration of the click is also recorded. This makes longer clicks possible.
      • Set text: Allows you to set a text in input fields.
      • Delete text: Deletes the text of an input field.
    • Actions on the device:
      • Tap: Triggers a click on the screen position that also takes the duration into account.
      • Wipe: Wipe in a straight line from the point where the mouse button is pressed to the point where the mouse button is released. The duration is also recorded.
    Note that these actions may result in different results on different devices, such as different screen resolutions.
    • Create test sequence blocks
      • Check attribute: Compares the value of a specified attribute of the element with a specified value. The result triggers the corresponding output.
      • Assure Attribute: Compares the value of a specified attribute of the element with a given value. If the attribute is not equal, the test fails.
    • Auto
    When the Auto tool is selected, all actions can be used by specific input methods: Click, Tap element and Wipe continue to work by clicking, distinguished by the duration and movement of the cursor. To trigger a tap, hold down Ctrl while clicking. The remaining actions can be accessed by right-clicking on the element in a context menu.
  6. Softkeys: Only under Android. Simulates pressing the Back, Home, Window List and Power buttons.
  7. Home button: Only under iOS from expecco 2.11. Allows you to press the Home button. Only works if AssistiveTouch is enabled and the menu is located in the middle of the top of the screen.
  8. Display: Shows a screenshot of the device. Actions are triggered with the mouse depending on the tool. If a new action can be entered, the window has a green frame, otherwise it is red.
  9. Fit window to image': Changes the size of the window so that the screenshot can be displayed completely.
  10. Fit image to window': Scales the screenshot to a size that takes full advantage of the window.
  11. Adjust alignment': Corrects the image if it is upside down. Using the arrow to the right, the image can also be rotated 90° if necessary. The orientation of the image is irrelevant for the function of the recorder, which works exclusively on the elements it contains.
  12. Scaling: Changes the scaling of the screenshot. Can also be adjusted using the slider to the right of it.
  13. Control light': Indicates the status of the recorder.
    green: The recorder is ready
    red: The recorder is blocked because the display and element list are updated
    grey: The recorder can no longer be used because the connection to the device has been lost.
Use

Each time you click in the window, an action is triggered and recorded in the work area of the GUI browser. There you can play, edit or create a new block from the recorded data. To use the recorder, see also step 2 in the tutorial (Android bzw. iOS).

AVD Manager and SDK Manager

AVD Manager and SDK Manager are both Android applications. In the menu of the Mobile Testing Plugin expecco offers the possibility to start them. Otherwise you will find these programs with your Android installation. With the AVD Manager you can create, edit and start AVDs, i.e. configurations for emulators. With the SDK Manager you get an overview of your Android installation and can extend it if necessary.

Customize XPath using the GUI browser

Devices that function correctly on one device may not do so on other devices. Small changes to the app can also result in a device not having the desired effect. You should therefore formulate a device so robust that it can be used for a variety of devices and can handle small adjustments to the app. This requires an understanding of the basic functional principle of addressing. This will be explained in the following using the app from the tutorial as an example.

The view of the app consists of individual elements. This includes the buttons GTIN-13 (EAN-13) and Verify, the input field of the number 4006381333986 and the result field in which OK appears, as well as all other things visible on the display. These visible elements are embedded in invisible structural elements. All elements together are organized in a coherent hierarchy, the element tree.

Abb. 1: Funktionen des GUI-Browsers


You can view this tree in the GUI browser. To do this, switch to the GUI browser (Fig. 1) and start any connection. Once the connection is established, you can expand the entire tree (1) (click while holding down the Ctrl key). It contains all elements of the current page of the app.

A block that now uses a certain element must uniquely specify it by describing its position in the element tree with a path in XPath format. This format is a common Web standard for XML documents and databases, but is also suitable for paths in the element tree.

When you select an element in the tree, the XPath (2) automatically generated by expecco is displayed at the bottom for the element that is also used for recording. Above it in the middle of the window there is a list of the properties (3) of the selected element. These properties are also called attributes. They describe the element in more detail, such as its type, text, or other information about its state. At the bottom left you can activate the Preview (4) for better orientation in the tree to display the image section of the element.

The element tree for the same view of an app may differ depending on the device. It is these differences that prevent a recording from one device from playing back unchanged on all other devices: An XPath that identifies a specific element in an element tree does not necessarily describe the same element in the element tree on another device. Instead, XPath may not fit on any element, on a wrong element, or on multiple elements. Then the test fails or behaves unexpectedly.

Of course, you could write a separate test case for each device. However, this would entail disproportionate effort for test creation and maintenance. The problem can also be solved in a different way, since a particular element is not only described by exactly one XPath. Rather, the standard allows different descriptions for the same element to be formulated using different features. The goal is therefore to find a path that works on all devices used for the test and that clearly leads to the right element everywhere.

In the example the connection to the Android app consists of the tutorial and the entry of the GTIN-13 button is selected (5). Its automatically generated XPath (2) may look like this:

//hierarchy/android.widget.FrameLayout/android.widget.LinearLayout/android.widget.FrameLayout/android.view.ViewGroup/android.widget.FrameLayout[@resource id='android:id/content']/android.widget.RelativeLayout/android.widget.Button[@resource-id='de.exept.expeccomobiledemo:id/gtin_13']

It's obviously long and confusing. The much shorter path

//*[@text='GTIN-13 (EAN-13)']

leads to the same element.

For the iOS app, the automatically generated XPath for this button is for example

//AppiumAUT/XCUIElementTypeApplication/XCUIElementTypeWindow[1]/XCUIElementTypeOther/XCUIElementTypeOther/XCUIElementTypeOther/XCUIElementTypeOther/XCUIElementTypeButton[2]

bzw.

//AppiumAUT/UIAApplication/UIAWindow[1]/UIAButton[2]

and can be written

//*[@name='GTIN-13 (EAN-13)']

shorter than.

You can change the path accordingly in the GUI browser and determine by Check Path (6) whether it still points to the selected element, which expecco should confirm with Verify Path: OK (7). The first, much longer path, describes the entire path from the top of the tree to the button you are looking for. The second path, on the other hand, first selects all elements of the tree with * and then restricts the selection to exactly those elements that have a text or name attribute with the value GTIN-13 (EAN-13), in our case exactly the one button we are looking for.

In the following, Android-like paths are used for illustration. The elements in iOS apps are called differently, resulting in different paths, but the principle is the same.

Abb. 2: Elementbaum einer fiktiven App

You can formulate such paths yourself using a few rules. Take a look at the simple tree of a fictitious Android app in Fig. 2: The indentations within the tree reflect the hierarchy of the elements. An element is a child of another element, if that other element is the next higher element with one less indentation. That element is the parent element of the child. If several elements standing one below the other are equally indented, then they are all children of the same parent element.

A path through all levels of the hierarchy to the TextView element is now:

//hierarchy/android.widget.FrameLayout/android.widget.LinearLayout/android.widget.FrameLayout/android.widget.LinearLayout/android.widget.TextView

The elements are separated by slashes. It is noticeable that the name of the first element does not match the name in the tree. The top element in the hierarchy is always called hierarchy (for iOS it would be AppiumAUT), expecco displays the name of the connection in the tree instead, so you can distinguish several connections from each other. The other elements each have the prefix android.widget., which is not displayed in the tree for a better overview. In IOS there is no prefix separated by a dot, but expecco 2.11 hides XCUIElementType at the beginning. With every slash the path leads over a parent-child relationship into a deeper hierarchy level, i.e. FrameLayout is a child element of hierarchy, LinearLayout is a child of FrameLayout and so on. The words written in square brackets are only for orientation in the tree. They do not belong to the type.

A path does not have to start at the hierarchy element. You can build the path starting with any element of the tree. So you can shorten also

//android.widget.TextView

The path leads to the same TextView element, since there is only one element of this type. The situation is different with the path

//android.widget.Button.

Since there are two elements of the type Button, this path fits on two elements, namely the button marked "On and the Button marked "Off. It wouldn't help to specify the long path starting from hierarchy at this point. To further differentiate an ambiguous path, you can explicitly select an element from a set by writing the numeric index in square brackets behind it. The path from the above example can be adjusted so that it points to the Button with the "Off mark:

//android.widget.Button[1].

You will surely notice that the index is a 1 although the second element is meant. This is because the count starts at 0. The button with the mark "On" has the number 0 and the Button with the mark "Off" has the number 1.

This approach of using an explicit index has two disadvantages: On the one hand the path is difficult to read which element is meant, on the other hand the path is very sensitive to even the smallest changes, such as swapping the two Button elements or inserting another Button element in the app.

It would therefore be desirable to address the intended element by a characteristic property like an attribute value. For Android apps the attribute resource-id is often suitable. In the ideal case, you must ensure that each element has a unique ID when developing the app. The resource-id has the big advantage that it is independent of the text of the element or the language setting of the device. For iOS apps, the name attribute can be used if it is set sensibly by the app. The XPath standard allows such selection conditions to be specified for an element. Assuming that the Button with the mark "Off" has the property resource-id with the value off and the Button with the mark "An" has the value on as resource-id, then you can use as a unique path for the "Off"-Button the value on.

//android.widget.Button[@resource-id='off']

As shown in the example, conditions such as an index in square brackets are appended to the element type. The name of an attribute is introduced with an @ and the value is appended with a = in quotation marks. If the attribute value is globally unique, you can even replace the preceding path with the global wildcard * that matches each element. The above example with the GTIN-13-Button was such a case.

Abb. 3: Elementbaum einer fiktiven App mit Erweiterungen

Fig. 3 shows an extension of the example in Fig. 2. The app now has another, almost identical LinearLayout. The Buttons are indistinguishable in their attributes. Therefore the previous approach does not work, to formulate a unique path only with the help of an attribute value. Obviously, however, their neighbouring TextViews differ. It is possible to include the respective TextView in the path in order to address a Button nevertheless unambiguously. A path to the Button with the mark "To" below the TextView with the mark "Push button" can look like this:

//android.widget.TextView[@resource-id='push']/../android.widget.Button[@resource-id='on']

The first part describes the path to the TextView with the mark "Pressure switch" and the resource-id with the value push. This is followed by a slash followed by two dots. The two dots are a special element name, which does not name a child element, but changes to the parent element, in this case the LinearLayout, in which the TextView is embedded. In the context of this LinearLayout, the remaining path, namely the Button with the resource-id with the value on, is unique.

The XPath standard offers many more means of expression. With the selection briefly presented here, however, it is already possible to formulate good paths for most practical test cases. A complete introduction to XPath would go far beyond the scope of this introduction. You will find a lot of further documentation on the web and in books.

There is no universal strategy for creating good XPaths because it depends on the test requirements. As a rule, it makes sense to keep the XPath short and yet unambiguous. Often, elements can be identified by properties such as their text. But if you want to read the text of an element, it cannot be used in the path, because it is not known before. The text will also vary if the app is started with different languages.

Every block that works on an element has an input pin for the XPath. In the GUI browser, you will find a list of blocks with actions that you can apply to the selected element in the top center. Find the Click block (8) in the Elements folder and select it (Fig. 1). It is inserted in the right part under Test, the pin for XPath is preset with the automatically generated path of the element (9). You can also execute the block here. The view then changes to Run. If the state of your app changes due to the action, you have to update the tree afterwards (10).

If you select a property in the lower list, the display of the blocks changes to Properties, where you will find the property-related blocks. As with the actions, you can also select a block here, which is then entered on the right in Test with the path of the element and the selected property, so that you can execute it directly.

Problems and Solutions

General Information

  • If an Android device connected via USB does not appear in the connection dialog, try changing the USB connection type. Usually MTP or PTP should work. See also Prepare Android device.
  • In some cases, when connecting an iOS device via USB, the message that the cable used is not certified appears. In this case it only helps to replace the corresponding cable.
  • Note that the Recorder also includes elements that you do not see on the screen. Therefore, turn on item highlighting or use the Follow Mouse function and the item tree in the GUI browser to determine if the correct item is being used.
  • Make sure that no alerts are open when connecting to an iOS device. Otherwise, the connection will fail because the app cannot come to the foreground. See also iOS_Device and Prepare App.
  • To use an iOS simulator, you do not need to specify an udid. In Xcode you get the names of the available simulators. Start Xcode and select Devices from the menu bar at the top of the screen in the Window menu. In addition to the connected devices, the available simulators are also listed here. Note that no .ipa files can be installed on simulators, only .app files.
  • With Android devices that automatically show and hide softkeys, it can happen that the recorder cuts off elements in the lower area that would be hidden by the softkeys, even if they are not displayed at all at this time. In this case, it is helpful to set the softkeys so that they are permanently displayed.

Connection Establishment fails

If the connection to the Appium server fails, you will receive an error message in expecco similar to the one shown below.

If the error is not caused by one of the causes listed below, it is possible that the UI-Automator application on the device is no longer functioning correctly. (Note: this occurs sporadically on some devices - the cause is not yet known to us). Here it helps to uninstall the UI-Automator applications in the mobile device. Expecco will install them again with the next connection.

To uninstall, navigate on the device to: "Settings"". - "'Applications'", and search the list for the following entries:

   Appium Settings
   io.appium.uiautomator2.server
   io.appium.uiautomator2.server.test

click on the respective application and then on "Uninstall".

If this does not help, the Appium server log may be able to help (you can reach it via the "Extensions" link). - "Mobile Testing." menu of expecco)

MobileTestingVerbindungsfehler.png

Here you can see the type of error that occurred. Click on "Details" for more information. Possible errors are:

  • org.openqa.selenium.remote.UnreachableBrowserException
The specified server is not running or cannot be reached. Check the server address.
  • org.openqa.selenium.WebDriverException'
Read in the details in the first line the message after Original Error:
  • Unknown device or simulator UDID
Either the device is not connected correctly or the udid is not correct.
  • Unable to launch WebDriverAgent because of xcodebuild failure: xcodebuild failed with code 65
This error can have several causes. Either the WebDriverAgent could not actually be built because the signing settings are wrong or the appropriate provisioning profile is missing. Please read the section on provisioning under Mac OS with expecco 2.11. It is also possible that the WebDriverAgent cannot be started on the device because, for example, an alert is in the foreground or you did not trust the developer.
  • Could not install app: 'Command 'ios-deploy [...] exited with code 253''
The specified app cannot be installed on the iOS device because it is not registered in the Provisioning Profile of the app.
  • Bad app: [...] App paths need to be absolute, or relative to the appium server install dir, or a URL to compressed file, or a special app name.'
The path to the app is wrong. Make sure that the file is under the specified path on the Mac.
  • packageAndLaunchActivityFromManifest failed.
The specified apk file is probably broken.
  • Could not find app apk at [...]
The path to the app is wrong. Make sure that the apk file m specified path is located.


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