Mobile Testing Plugin/en

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Introduction[edit]

With the Mobile Testing Plugin applications can be tested on Android and iOS devices. This includes both real and emulated devices. It does not matter whether real mobile devices or emulated devices are used. The plugin can (and usually is) used in conjunction with the GUI-Browser, which supports the creation of tests. It can also be used to record test procedures.

The Appium is used to connect to the devices. Appium is a free open source framework for testing and automating mobile applications.

We recommend editing the Tutorial to familiarize yourself with the Mobile Plugin. This tutorial leads step by step through the creation of a test case using an example and explains the necessary basics.

Installation and Setup[edit]

To use the Mobile Testing Plugin, you must have installed expecco together with the corresponding plugin, and you need the appropriate licenses. expecco communicates with the mobile devices via an Appium server, which either runs on the same computer as expecco, or on a second computer. This must be accessible for expecco.

Installation overview for expecco 18.1:

  • Appium-Servera 1.6.4 for Android
  • Appium-Serverb 1.8.0 for iOS

for Android-devices starting with version 4.3:

  • Java JDKa Version 7, 8 or 9
  • Android SDKa

for iOS-devices starting with version 9.3:

  • Xcode 9.3.x
  • Apple-Developer-Certificate incl. matching private key
  • Provisioning Profile with the mobile devices used

(a) contained in Mobile Testing Supplement
(b) contained in Mobile Testing Supplement for Mac OS

Installation overview for expecco 2.11:

  • Appium-Serverab 1.6.4

for Android-devices starting with version 4.3:

  • Java JDKa Version 7 or 8
  • Android SDKa

for iOS-devices starting with version 9.3:

  • Xcode 8.3.x
  • Apple-Developer-Certificate incl. matching private key
  • Provisioning Profile with the mobile devices used

(a) contained in Mobile Testing Supplement
(b) contained in Mobile Testing Supplement for Mac OS

Installation overview for expecco 2.10:

  • Appium-Serverab 1.4.16

for Android-devices starting with version 2.3.3 up to version 6.0:

  • Java JDK Versiona 7 or 8
  • Android SDKa

for iOS-devices up to version 9.3:

  • Xcode 7.3.x
  • Apple-Developer-Certificate c incl. matching private key
  • Provisioning Profilec for the mobile devices to be used

(a) contained in Mobile Testing Supplement
(b) contained in Mobile Testing Supplement for Mac OS
(c) in order to sign the appp

Please note that due to the requirements iOS devices can only be controlled from a Mac. expecco can then communicate over the network with the Appium server on the Mac to test on the iOS devices connected there. The following explains how to install Appium and other necessary applications for Windows and Mac OS.

MobileTestingAufbau.png

Windows[edit]

The easiest way is to install everything from our Mobile Testing Supplement:

This installs Appium in the version 1.12.0 and now additionally contains build-tools in the version 28.0.3 in the android-sdk. Apart from this, it is the same as the previous version.
This installs Appium in the version 1.8.1. In addition, an installation of Android Debug Bridge and Google USB Driver (adb-setup-1.4.3) is offered. This covers drivers for a broad range of Android devices, and you won't have to install an individual driver for each device. A JDK is not contained anymore, you have to download it on your own, e.g. from Oracle.
This installs a Java JDK Version 8, android-sdk and Appium Version 1.6.4. The supplement also offers a universal adb driver (ClockworkMod). This driver supports a wide range of Android Devise, and avoids the need to search for individual device-specific drivers.
It installs a Java JDK version 8, android-sdk and Appium version 1.4.16. During the installation the graphical user interface of Appium is started, you can close this window immediately. The supplement also offers a universal adb driver (ClockworkMod). This combines drivers for a wide range of Android devices so that you do not have to search for and install a separate driver for each device.

When Appium is started, it may happen that the Windows firewall blocks access to the Node-Server, and expecco cannot start/connect to the Appium server. To verify correct operation after the installation, run the appium.cmd program found in the appium folder of the Mobile Testing Supplement. If the Appium server can be started, it should also work from expecco. If the Windows firewall is logging in, allow access.

Mac OS[edit]

Note: the following can be ignored if you do not plan to test iOS (iPhone) devices. The Mac setup is not needed for Android devices.

expecco 19.1[edit]

The updated Mobile Testing Supplement for Mac OS (1.1.96) now includes Appium 1.12.0.

expecco 18.1[edit]

We provide an updated Mobile Testing Supplement for Mac OS (1.1.94), which includes Appium 1.8.0. For devices with IOS 11, you'll also need Xcode 9, with at least a corresponding minor version number, i.e. Xcode 9.3 für iOS 11.3. Other than that, the setup is the same as with expecco 2.11.

expecco 2.11[edit]

The Mac used should run OS X 10.12 (Sierra) and Xcode 8.3 or later as operating system version. You can install a current version of Xcode from the App Store. In addition, a Java installation is required by Appium. For that, install a JDK in Version 7 or 8. Then install Appium 1.6.4 using our Mobile Testing Supplements for Mac OS (1.0.94). After you have downloaded it, you can move it to a directory of your choice (e.g. your home directory) and unpack it there. An appropriate command in a shell might look like this:

tar -xvpf Mobile_Testing_Supplement_for_Mac_OS_1.0.94.tar.bz2

Note: For the automation of iOS devices from version 10, an installation of a comparable new Xcode 8 is necessary (for iOS 10.2 at least Xcode 8.2, for iOS 10.3 at least Xcode 8.3, etc.), which may not run on older operating systems. So if you switch to a newer iOS version, you usually need a newer Xcode version as well, which may require an update of the operating system (see also Xcode Versions).

Xcode-Versionen).

If Xcode 8.3 or later is your default Xcode installation, you can start Appium directly:

Mobile_Testing_Supplement/bin/start-appium-1.6.4

If there is not enough new Xcode configured as default, you have to specify the corresponding path via the environment variable DEVELOPER_DIR in Appium. For example, if you have Xcode installed in /Applications/Xcode-8.3.app, you can start Appium this way:

DEVELOPER_DIR="/Applications/Xcode-8.3.app/Contents/Developer" Mobile_Testing_Supplement/bin/start-appium-1.6.4

You can use this command to find out what is set as the default Xcode installation in your system:

xcode-select -p

If Appium cannot find your Xcode installation, a message appears like:

org.openqa.selenium.SessionNotCreatedException - A new session could not be created. (Original error: Could not find path to Xcode, environment variable DEVELOPER_DIR set to: /Applications/Xcode.app but no Xcode found)

In such a case, restart Appium by specifying a valid DEVELOPER_DIR.

To establish a test connection with a device, you need an Apple account. For evaluation you can use a free account. This has the disadvantage that created profiles are only valid for one week and must be recreated afterwards. Also be careful when sharing the account, as certificates may be revoked or invalidated by automatic generation. As a result, apps that have already been signed can no longer be used.

First, connect the device you want to use to your Mac via USB. Start Xcode and open Preferences. Go to the Accounts page and create an entry with your account. You can then click on Manage Certificates... to see the certificates that belong to that account. To run tests, you need an iOS Development Certificate and the associated private key. If you do not already have one, create one. If you already have one, but it is not in your keychain (indicated by "Not in Keychain"), you can import it. In any case, open the keychain management on your Mac and select the keychain login. If you want to import a certificate from a PKCS#12-Datei (Endung typischerweise .p12), you can do this via the menu File > Import objects. If you don't know where the certificate is stored, you can also revoke it in Xcode and recreate it in your keychain. However, only do this if you know that the old certificate is no longer in use because it can no longer be used afterwards. Now the keychain should contain an iOS development certificate. From the right-click menu, select Information. Under the details of the certificate you will find the Team ID, which is referred to here as the Organizational Unit. Enter it in the Team ID field of the plug-in's settings, see Konfiguration des Plugins.

Return to Xcode und select Open... in the menue File, to open the WebDriverAgent project. This is found in the Mobile Testing Supplements folder under Mobile_Testing_Supplement/lib/node_modules/appium-1.6.4-beta/node_modules/appium-xcuitest-driver/WebDriverAgent/WebDriverAgent.xcodeproj

MobileTestingWebDriverAgentXcode.png

Select WebDriverAgentLib and the page General. In the section Signing set the option Automatically manage signing and then select a team. Now switch to WebDriverAgentRunner and also to the General page. Set automatic signing here as well and select your team here as well. Here you should see errors indicating that no Provisioning Profiles have been created or found. Therefore, go to the Build Settings page and look for the entry Product Bundle Identifier in the Packaging section. Change this from com.facebook.WebDriverAgentRunner to something Xcode accepts by changing the prefix. Xcode can now generate a matching Provisioning Profile and the errors on the General page should disappear. After that you can quit Xcode.

If you now connect to your device from expecco, the WebDriverAgent will be installed and started on it and then switch to the app to be tested. On the device, however, the execution of the WebDriverAgent must still be trusted. To do this, open the settings during the connection setup on the device and then the entry Device management under General. This entry is only visible if a developer app is installed on the device. You may therefore have to wait until the WebDriverAgent is installed before the entry appears. Select the entry of your Apple account and trust it. Since the WebDriverAgent will be uninstalled again if the start did not work, you have to do this during the connection setup. If this is too hectic for you, you can also execute the following code:

xcodebuild -project Mobile_Testing_Supplement/lib/node_modules/appium-1.6.4-beta/node_modules/appium-xcuitest-driver/WebDriverAgent/WebDriverAgent.xcodeproj -scheme WebDriverAgentRunner -destination 'id=<udid>' test

This installs the WebDriverAgent on the device without deleting it again. Refer to the Dokumentation von Apple for details on installing and trusting such apps.

expecco 2.10[edit]

The Mac used should run OS X 10.11.5 (El Capitan) or later as operating system version. To automate with iOS devices up to version 9.3, you need to install Xcode 7.3, which does not run on older operating systems (see also Xcode-Versionen). Install Xcode from the App Store. Appium also requires a Java installation. Install a JDK in version 7 or 8. You can now install Appium 1.4.16 using our Mobile Testing Supplements für Mac OS. After you have downloaded it, you can move it to a directory of your choice (e.g. your home directory) and unpack it there. A suitable command in a shell could look like this:

tar -xvpf Mobile_Testing_Supplement_for_Mac_OS_1.0.tar.bz2

If Xcode 7.3 is your default Xcode installation, you can start Appium directly:

Mobile_Testing_Supplement/bin/start-appium-1.4.16

If Xcode 7.3 is not configured as the default Xcode, you must specify the appropriate path to Appium using the DEVELOPER_DIR environment variable. For example, if you have Xcode installed in /Applications/Xcode-7.3.app, you can start Appium this way:

DEVELOPER_DIR="/Applications/Xcode-7.3.app/Contents/Developer" Mobile_Testing_Supplement/bin/start-appium-1.4.16

You can use this command to find out what is set as the default Xcode installation in your system:

xcode-select -p

If Appium does not find your Xcode installation, an error message like this appears when connecting:

org.openqa.selenium.SessionNotCreatedException - A new session could not be created. (Original error: Could not find path to Xcode, environment variable DEVELOPER_DIR set to: /Applications/Xcode.app but no Xcode found)

In such a case, restart Appium by specifying a valid DEVELOPER_DIR.

Konfiguration of Plugins[edit]

Before you get started, you should check the settings of the Mobile Testing Plugin and adjust them if necessary. Open in the menu the item "Extras" > "Settings'"' and there under "Extensions" the entry "Mobile Testing" (s. fig.). By default, these paths are found automatically (1). To adjust a path manually, deactivate the corresponding check mark to the right of it. You will see a drop-down list with some paths to choose from. If an entered path is wrong or cannot be found, the field is marked red and a message appears. Make sure that all paths are specified correctly.

Konfiguration des Plugins
  • appium: Enter here the path to the executable file with which Appium can be started in the command line. Under Windows this file will usually be called "appium.cmd". This path is used when expecco starts an Appium server.
  • node: Enter the path to the executable file that starts Node (also called (auch "Node.js" genannt). This path is passed to Appium when a server is started so that Appium can find it independently of the PATH variable. Under Windows this file is usually called "node.exe".
  • JAVA_HOME: Enter the path to a JDK here. This path is passed on to each Appium server. Leave the field blank to use the value from the environment variable. To set which Java should be used by expecco, set this path in the Java Bridge settings.
  • ANDROID_HOME: Enter the path to an Android SDK here. This path is passed on to each Appium server. Leave the field blank to use the value from the environment variable.
  • adb: This is the path to the adb command. Under Windows the file is called adb.exe. This file is used by expecco, for example, to get the list of connected devices. This path should be selected automatically, because the command is used in the ANDROID_HOME directory. This is also used by Appium. If expecco and Appium use different versions of adb, conflicts may occur.
  • android.bat: This file is only needed to start the AVD and the SDK Manager. The file in the ANDROID_HOME directory will be searched automatically.
  • aapt: Enter the path to the aapt command here. Under Windows this file is called aapt.exe. expecco uses aapt only in the connection editor to read the package and activities of an apk file. The file in the ANDROID_HOME directory will be searched automatically.
Konfiguration des JDKs

From expecco 2.11 there is a field Team-ID. If you run iOS tests, enter the team ID of your certificate here. This is used for every iOS connection, unless you change the value in the connection settings. How to get the Team ID is described in the Installation auf Mac OS mit expecco 2.11 section. With expecco 2.10 you can enter the Team-ID only for each connection setting separately as capability. However, you must use the Extended View to do this. Enter here the Capability xcodeOrgId and set as value the Team-ID of the certificate.

The server address setting at the bottom of the page refers to the behavior of the connection editor. It checks at the end whether the server address ends in /wd/hub as this is the usual form. If not, a dialog asks how to react. The defined behavior can be viewed and changed here.

Also switch to the entry Java Bridge (see figure). Here you have to specify the path to your Java installation, which is used by expecco. Enter a JDK here. If you want to use the one from the Mobile Testing Supplement under Windows, the path is

C:\Program Files (x86)\exept\Mobile Testing Supplement\jdk

You can also use the system settings.

Prepare Android Device[edit]

If you connect an Android device under Windows, you may still need an adb driver for the device. You can usually find a suitable driver on the manufacturer's website. If you have installed the universal driver from the Mobile Testing Supplement, everything should already work for most devices. In some cases, Windows will automatically try to install a driver when you connect the device for the first time. Attention: Before you can control a mobile device with the Appium plugin, you have to allow this debugging!

For Android devices, you can find this option in the settings under Entwickleroptionen called USB-Debugging'. If the developer options are not displayed, you can unlock them by tapping Build Number seven times in About the Phone.

Also enable the Stay On Watch feature to prevent the instrument from turning off the screen during test creation or execution.

For security reasons, USB debugging must be allowed for each computer individually. When connecting the device to the PC via USB, you must agree to the connection on the device. If you haven't done this for your computer yet, but no corresponding dialog appears on the device, it may help to unplug and reconnect the device. This can happen especially if you have installed the ADB driver while the device was already connected via USB. If this doesn't help either, open the notifications by dragging them from the top of the screen. There you will find the USB connection and you can open the options. Select another type of connection; usually MTP or PTP should work.

You can also test on an emulator. This emulator no longer needs to be prepared separately, as it is already designed for USB debugging. It is even possible to start an emulator at the beginning of the test.

To check if a device you have connected to your computer can be used, open the Verbindungseditor. The device should be displayed there.

Connection via WLAN[edit]

It is possible to connect to Android-devices via Wireless LAN. To prepare and enable this, you have to connect initially via USB. Open a command window (terminal window) and enter:

adb tcpip 5555

The device listens for a TCP/IP connection on port 5555. If you have several devices connected or emulators running, you have to specify which device you mean. Enter in this case:

adb devices -l

to get a list of all devices, where the first column gives the device's ID. Then, enter:

adb -s <DeviceID> tcpip 5555

with the device identification of the desired device. You can now disconnect the USB connection. Now you have to find out the IP address of your device. You can usually find it somewhere in the device's settings, for example in the Status or WLAN settings. Then type in:

adb connect <IP-Adresse of Device>

The device should now be connected via WLAN and can be used in the same way as with a USB connection. You can check this by entering adb devices -l again or open the connection dialog in expecco. In the list the device appears with its IP address and port. Remember that the WLAN connection no longer exists when the ADB server or the device is restarted.

Preparing an iOS-Device and App[edit]

Control of iOS devices is only possible via a Mac. Please also read the section Installation under Mac OS.

Before you can control a mobile device with the Mobile Testing Plugin, you must allow debugging for iOS devices with iOS 8 or higher. Activate the option Enable UI Automation under the menu Developer in the device settings. If you cannot find the Developer entry in the settings, proceed as follows: Connect the device to the Mac via USB. If necessary, you must still agree to the connection on the device. Start Xcode and then select Devices from the menu bar at the top of the screen in the Window menu. A window opens in which a list of the connected devices is displayed. Select your device there. Then the entry Developer should appear in the settings on the device. You may have to exit the settings and restart.

Alert unter iOS

It is not possible to establish a connection to the device as long as it shows certain alerts. Such an alert may appear if FaceTime is activated by displaying a message about SMS charges (see screenshot). Be sure to configure the device so that it does not show such alerts when idle.

expecco 2.11 and later[edit]

You can test any apps that are executable or already installed on the device used. If the app is available as a development build, the UDID of the device must be stored in the app. In any case, the WebDriverAgent must be signed for the device. Please read the section Preparation under Mac OS.

If you want to use the Home button in a test, you must activate AssistiveTouch on the device. You will find this option in the settings under General > Operating Help > AssistiveTouch. Then place the menu in the middle of the upper edge of the screen. You can then record pressing the Home button with the corresponding menu entry in the recorder or use the Press Home Button block directly.

expecco 2.10[edit]

The app you want to use must be available as a development build. The UDID of the device must also be stored in the app.

Sign the development build[edit]

A development build of an app is only allowed for a limited number of devices and cannot be started on other devices. However, it is possible to exchange the certificate and the usable devices in a development build.

  • Evaluation with demo app of eXept:
We will be happy to provide you with a demo app which is available as a development build and which we can sign for your device. Please send the UDID of your device to your eXept contact person. How to determine the UDID of your device is described in the following section.
  • Using your own app for your test device:
If you receive a development build (IPA file) from the app developers that is approved for your test device, you can use it directly. To do this, you must tell the developers the UDID of your device so they can enter it. You can use Xcode to read the UDID of a device. Start Xcode and select Devices from the menu bar at the top of the screen in the Window menu. A window opens in which a list of the connected devices is displayed. Select your device and search for the Identifier entry in Properties. The UDID is a 40-digit hexadecimal number.
  • Externally developed app for your test device:
You can also re-sign apps to make them run on other devices. However, this process is complicated and requires access to an Apple Developer account. A documentation on the procedure is currently in preparation.
For the evaluation we will gladly support you with the re-signing of your app..

For more information about using iOS devices, see also the Dokumentation von Appium.

Native iOS-Apps[edit]

You can also use apps that are already natively present on the device. To do this, you must know their bundle ID and then enter it in the connection settings. Here is a small selection of common apps:

App Bundle-ID
App Store com.apple.AppStore
Calculator com.apple.calculator
Calendar com.apple.mobilecal
Camera com.apple.camera
Contacts com.apple.MobileAddressBook
iTunes Store com.apple.MobileStore
Mail com.apple.mobilemail
Maps com.apple.Maps
Messages com.apple.MobileSMS
Phone com.apple.mobilephone
Photos com.apple.mobileslideshow
Settings com.apple.Preferences

You can find further Bundle-IDs here.

Examples[edit]

In the demo test suites for expecco you will also find examples for tests with the Mobile Testing Plugin. To do this, select the option Example from file on the start screen and open the folder mobile.

m01_MobileTestingDemo.ets[edit]

The test suite contains two simple test plans: "Simple CalculatorTest" and "Complex Calculator and Messaging Test". Both tests use an Android emulator, which you must start before starting. The apps used in the test are part of the basic equipment of the emulator and therefore no longer need to be installed. Since the apps may differ under every Android version, it is important that your emulator runs under Android 6.0. In addition, the language must be set to English.

Simple CalculatorTest
This test connects to the calculator and enters the formula 2+3. The result of the calculator is compared with the expected value 5.
Complex Calculator and Messaging Test
This test connects to the calculator and then opens the message service. There it waits for an incoming message from the number 15555215556, in which a formula to be calculated is sent. The message is generated before via a socket at the emulator. When the message arrives, it is opened by the test and its contents are read. Then the calculator is opened again, the received formula is entered and the result is read. The test then switches back to the message service and sends the result as an answer.

m02_expeccoMobileDemo.ets und m03_expeccoMobileDemoIOS.ets[edit]

These are part of the tutorial for the Mobile Testing Plugin. The included test case is incomplete and will be added during the tutorial. Please read the section Tutorial.

Tutorial[edit]

This tutorial describes the basic procedure for creating tests with the Mobile Testing Plugin. The basis for this is a supplied example consisting of a simple app and an expecco test suite.

The expecco Mobile Demo app calculates and checks various everyday codes: the IBAN from European payment transactions, the international GTIN 13 product codes found in retail bar codes, and the serial numbers on euro banknotes.

The test-suite contains test cases for individual functions of the app. Not all functions are covered yet, but will be added in the course of the tutorial.

There are two versions of these Tutorials:

The procedure is almost identical in both versions, only the connection configurations are created differently. The finished tests then differ essentially in the paths for addressing the elements used, since these are technology-dependent.

First steps with Android[edit]

It is assumed that you have already read the chapter Installation and Setup and completed the necessary preparations for for using iOS devices under Mac OS. Connect the device you want to use to your Mac. Download the iOS version of the expeccoMobileDemo-App to your Mac. Since the app is a debug build, you still need to sign it for your device (see Preparing an iOS-Device and App). Now start an Appium server on your Mac.

Step 1: Run Demo[edit]

Start expecco and open the test-suite m02_expeccoMobileDemo.ets via the button Example from file (fig. 1). As of expecco 2.11 this is located in the subfolder mobile. Otherwise download the test-suite m03_expeccoMobileDemoIOS.ets to the computer where your expecco installation is located and open it. In this test-suite there is already a ready-made test plan with some test cases for this app.

Abb. 1: Beispiel-Testsuite öffnen


In the test suite the package of the demo app is included as an attachment (expeccoMobileDemo-debug.apk). With the provided module Export Demo App you can export the file to any location on your computer. Select the device (1) and click on the green play button (2) to execute the device (fig. 2). The block opens a file dialog in which you specify where the package should be saved.

Abb. 2: App exportieren


Before we get into the rest of the test-suite, first configure the connection and which device you want to use. To do this, connect a device to your computer via USB or start an emulator.

Abb. 3: Verbindungseditor öffnen


Now open the GUI browser (1) and select the entry Mobile Testing (3) under Connect (2) (Fig. 3) to open the connection dialog.

You will see a list of all connected Android devices (1) (Fig. 3). If your device does not appear in the list, make sure it is turned on and connected via USB. Otherwise read the section Prepare Android Device

Abb. 4: Gerät im Verbindungsdialog auswählen


Once you have found your device in the list, select it and click Next (2).

Next, specify which app you want to use (Fig. 5). You can choose if you want to start an app that is already installed on the device (App on the device) or if you want to install and start an app (Install app). In case you want to use an already installed app, you will get a list of all packages installed on the device (1), which are divided into system packages and foreign packages (2), as well as their activities (3). You can then simply select these in the respective fields.

Abb. 5: Auf dem Gerät installierte App angeben


For this tutorial the app you just exported from the test-suite should be installed. Select Install App and enter the appropriate path in App (1) (Fig. 6). You can use the button on the left (2) to open a file dialog where you can navigate to the file to enter it. The package (3) and the activity (4) of the app will be entered automatically. If the app has multiple activities, you can select the one you want. Now click on Next (5).

Abb. 6: App angeben, die auf dem Gerät installiert werden soll


On the last page you can see an overview of all previous data (1) (Fig. 7). Below, you can enter a name for the connection under which it will be displayed in the GUI browser (2). In addition, a connection can be identified by this name and used in blocks; the name must therefore be unique. If you do not specify a name, one is generated generically. Enter expeccoMobileDemo as the name. Enter the address for the Appium server in the field below (3). Appium is the interface, via which the connected devices are controlled. For this tutorial expecco manages the instances of the Appium server. Enter the local default address http://localhost:4723/wd/hub. This is always the lowest entry in the proposal list. In addition the option Start if necessary is activated (4). expecco then checks if an Appium server is already running at the address and starts and ends it automatically if necessary. If the port 4723 is already occupied or if you want to use several connections at the same time, use a different port at this point. It is common to use the odd port numbers above 4723, i.e. 4725, 4727 and so on. Of course you can also use remote servers, but the automatic start and stop of a server can only be done locally by expecco.

Abb. 7: Verbindungsnamen und Appium-Server konfigurieren


Now click on Save (5) to save the settings for the test execution. Settings can be saved as an attachment to an execution definition or to an external file (Fig. 8). If you have several projects open at the same time, you can select the project in which the attachment is to be created from the list. Click on Save in the Save settings in attachment area and enter expeccoMobileDemo as the name. Now click on Start server and connect (6) to establish a connection with the specified configuration.

Abb. 8: Einstellungen speichern


It may take a while to establish the connection. Wait until the connection is established and displayed in the GUI browser. You will see that the app is started on the device. Now you know that the configuration works. The saved settings should now be used for the test, which then establishes the same connection. Select the connection in the GUI browser, right-click and select 'Close Connection' from the context menu to avoid any conflict. Then switch back to the test-suite tab.

In the test suite, the settings were created as an appendix expeccoMobileDemo (Fig 9). Select the Connect block (1) and switch to the Network view on the right (2). Drag and drop the settings into the network of the block (3). Connect the output pin pathName with the input pin stringOrFilename[1] of the block Connect from File (4). Confirm the changes with Apply (5). This block will establish the connection to the app at the beginning of the test.

Abb. 9: Verbindungsbaustein editieren


Now switch to the test plan Demo Test (1) (Fig. 10). This test plan already contains some finished test cases. Before and after the execution (2) one block is also entered: The just edited block Connect for the setup and the block Disconnect for the disconnection. By entering the two blocks at this point, the connection is terminated, especially if the test is aborted prematurely, e.g. because one of the test cases fails.

Abb. 10: Testplanausführung


Now you can start the test plan Demo Test by clicking on the green Play button (3). The test plan should run without errors.

Step 2: Creating a Block with the Recorder[edit]

With the help of the integrated recorder, you can easily record execution sequences and store them in a block. This requires a connection to a test device, which is used to create the test.

To establish a connection, switch back to the GUI browser. The connection that you created previously is still entered here. Since the same name was used for the connection in the test run, the settings were overwritten (in our case, the settings were identical anyway). The connection is currently not active, since it was terminated at the end of the execution. However, the settings are still entered there. To reestablish the connection with this configuration, select it, right-click it, and then Connect.

Wait until the connection is established (1), then press the record button (2) to start recording (Fig. 11).

Abb. 11: Recorder starten


A window opens with the Mobile Testing Recorder (Fig. 12). This shows a screenshot of the connected device. This screen allows you to control the device remotely. Every action you perform is recorded in the background.

In the upper menu bar you can select the tool (1) with which you want to enter an action. The Auto tool is selected by default. You can use it to record certain actions by making gestures on the display with the mouse pointer. For example, if you left-click for a long time, this corresponds to a long tap on the element at this point. Instead of specifying the desired action with the corresponding gesture, you can also select it manually.

A new test for the recognition of correct GTIN-13 codes should now be recorded. First click briefly on the button GTIN-13 (EAN-13) (2) of the app in the display to trigger a corresponding click on the device. During the execution of this action, the frame of the recorder will briefly turn red. If the recorder does not display the current view of the app afterwards, click on the update icon (3) in the recorder.

Abb. 12: Über Recorder zur GTIN-13-Activity wechseln


Then enter a correct GTIN-13 in the input field of the new page. To do this, right-click on the input field (1) and select the action Set text (2) in the context menu (Fig. 13). Enter any valid article number in GTIN-13 format, e.g. 4006381333986 (3). This text is now set in the app.

Abb. 13: GTIN-13-Code über Recorder eingeben


Now click on Verify (1) (Fig. 14). The app now displays OK (2) as the result. The test should determine whether this result is actually displayed. After a right click you can select the action Assure attribute (3) in the context menu. In the dialog that opens, select the property text (4) and confirm with OK (5). This time, no action is triggered on the device, but only a block is recorded that fails if the result deviates from the expected value OK.

Abb. 14: Antwort der App über Recorder auslesen


Now close the recorder. In the workspace of the GUI browser you can see that a block has been created for each of the recorded actions (Fig. 15). You can now test whether the recorded action can be played back. To do this, you must first return the app on your device to its initial state by using the HOME button on the top right of the device. Then click in expecco on the green Play button (1). If everything turns green, the execution was successful. Now create a new block in the test-suite by clicking on the block symbol (2) in the upper right corner. Give it the name GTIN_Verify_OK (3) and confirm (4).

Abb. 15: Neuen Baustein aus Arbeitsbereich exportieren


Now close the connection by selecting the connection, right-clicking and selecting Close connection from the context menu.

Switch back to the Testsuite tab. The new block was created there. Again select the test plan Demo-Test and add the recorded test case GTIN_Verify_OK by drag-and-drop at the end of the test plan. Apply the change and restart. The test plan should run again without errors.

Step 3: Customizing XPath Using the GUI Browser[edit]

Your new device may not work on other devices. The elements used are addressed via an XPath and this cannot be correct on other devices. See the Customizing XPath Using the GUI-Browser section for more information. If you have another device available, you can now try to generalize the paths in your created devices. You can also skip this step.

If you find it difficult to find shortened paths, follow the paths of the existing blocks. Start the test again. If the test now fails, check the paths again in the GUI browser. To run the test on a second device, open in the menu Extensions > Mobile Testing > Create connection settings. You will get a dialog similar to the connection dialog. However, you can only create and save settings but not establish a connection. However, you have the option to save individual aspects of the settings, such as only the device. Select the new device and click on the Save icon in the attachment until the delayed menu opens (Fig. 16). Select Save device settings here. It is best to name the attachment after the device. You can then close the dialog again.

Abb. 16: Einstellungen für ein Gerät speichern


Select the Connect block and drag the settings for the new device into its network. Now connect its output pin pathName with the input pin stringOrFilename[2] of the block Connect from File. The block Connect from File reads the information at the input pins from top to bottom, multiple properties are replaced. In this case, the settings for the device used are replaced, while the other settings remain the same. If you have chosen the paths skilfully, the test will now also run successfully on the other device.

Step 4: Create another block[edit]

If the same procedures are repeated in the test, you can reuse or modify blocks that have already been created for this purpose. The block created in step 2 checks the recognition of correct GTIN 13 codes. A test is still missing which, conversely, checks the detection of a wrong GTIN-13 code. The structure of the two tests is identical, they only differ in their parameters. Therefore, copy the block GTIN_Verify_OK and rename the copy to GTIN_Verify_NOT_OK. Change the input of the GTIN-13 to a wrong code, for example by changing the last digit (4006381333987) and set the check value of the output to NOT OK (Fig. 17).

Abb. 17: Baustein editieren


Add this new test to the Test Plan Demo Test as well and place it at the end. Run the test plan, but don't forget to disconnect in the GUI browser first.

The new test will fail because the device you added does not return to the start page of the app, but the tests start from there. This is already considered in the other blocks; they always execute the block Back to main menu at the end. You can see this by selecting one of the other blocks, e.g. GTIN_Calculate, and switching to its schematic view. There the block Back to main menu is displayed in the field After execution (Fig. 18). As with the corresponding field in the test plan, this block is always executed at the end, regardless of whether the test is successful or aborted. Now add this entry to your blocks GTIN_Verify_OK and GTIN_Verify_NOT_OK. Select the block and drag the block Back to main menu in the schema view to the input field After execution. Now you can start the test plan and all tests should be executed again without any problems.

Abb. 18: Nach-Ausführungs-Baustein setzen


Step 5: Complete Test[edit]

For the Activity IBAN all answer possibilities of the app are already covered with test cases. In the GTIN-13-Activity a correct and a faulty code are tested and a check digit is calculated, but the behaviour of the app in case of input of wrong length is not tested yet (With Verify 'Input must be exactly 13 digits. and ...12 digits. for Calculate). The activity for checking the serial numbers of euro banknotes is not yet tested. As with the IBAN, three cases can occur here: a correct serial number was entered (answer: OK), an incorrect serial number was entered (answer: NOT OK) or the specification does not correspond to the format (answer: A serial number consists of 12 characters with the first one or two being capital letters (A-Z).). You can now extend the test coverage by creating test cases. You can create the blocks for this with the recorder as in step 2 and generalize the XPaths if necessary. If you are familiar with the basic handling of expecco, you can of course also create blocks without recorder by manually assembling them from existing blocks of the library. You can also combine both approaches as you wish.

Note that the test cases presented here only check individual entries. If you write test cases for your own apps, you will probably want to test more closely by entering more different values, including edge cases.

First steps with iOS[edit]

It is assumed that you have already read the chapter Installation and Setup and completed the necessary preparations for using iOS devices under Mac OS. Connect the device you want to use to your Mac. Download the iOS version of the expeccoMobileDemo-App to your Mac. Since the app is a debug build, you still need to sign it for your device (see iOS-Device and App preparing). Now start an Appium server on your Mac.

Step 1: Run Demo[edit]

Start expecco and open the test-suite m03_expeccoMobileDemoIOS.ets via the button Example from file (Fig. 1). As of expecco 2.11 this is located in the subfolder mobile. Otherwise download the test-suite m03_expeccoMobileDemoIOS.ets to the computer on which your expecco installation is located and open it. In this test-suite there is already a ready-made test plan with some test cases for this app.

Abb. 1: Beispiel-Testsuite öffnen


Before we get into the rest of the test-suite, first configure the connection and which device you want to use. Now open the GUI browser (1) and select the entry Mobile Testing (3) under Connect (2) (Fig. 2) to open the connection dialog.

Abb. 2: Verbindungseditor öffnen


Here you can enter an iOS device only by hand. Select Enter iOS device (Fig. 3). The name and iOS version of the device can be found in its properties. To find out the device ID of the device, open the Devices (Command-Shift-2) window in Xcode on the Mac. All connected devices and the available simulators are displayed there. Here you can also see the device ID (udid) of your device and which apps have been installed. After you have entered the device in the connection editor, select it in the list and click Next.

Abb. 3: Hinzufügen eines iOS-Geräts


Next, specify which app you want to use. You can choose whether you want to start an app that is already installed on the device (App on the device) or if you want to install and start an app (Install app). In case you want to use an already installed app, you have to specify its bundle ID. You will also find this in the Devices window of Xcode. For the demo app it is de.exept.expeccoMobileDemo.

For this tutorial the demo app has to be installed first. Select Install App and enter the path to the file on your Mac (fig. 4). If you are using expecco 2.11, you can also specify the Team-ID on this page, which specifies which certificate should be used for iOS connections. If you have already specified an ID in Plugin Settings, it will be used. It will be grayed out unless you specify another value. Now click on Next.

Abb. 4: App angeben, die auf dem Gerät installiert werden soll


On the last page you can see an overview of all previous data (1) (Fig. 5). Below the Capabilities list, you can enter a name for the connection under which it is displayed in the GUI browser (2). In addition, a connection can be identified by this name and used in blocks; the name must therefore be unique. If you do not specify a name, one is generated generically. Enter expeccoMobileDemo as the name. Enter the address for the Appium server in the field below (3). If you have started the Appium server with default settings, you only have to replace localhost in the default address (lowest entry of the suggestion list) with the IP address of the Mac (in the picture 172.23.1.49). To make sure which port the Appium server is listening on, see its output. At the beginning there is the line

info: Appium REST http interface listener started on 0.0.0.0:4723

If the default port 4723 does not appear at the end, change this value accordingly in the configuration.

If the option Start on demand (4) is activated, expecco checks if an Appium server is already running at the address and starts and stops it automatically if necessary. However, this is only possible for local server addresses, so deactivate this option.

Abb. 5: Verbindungsnamen und Appium-Server konfigurieren


Now click on Save (5) to save the settings for the test execution. Settings can be saved as an attachment to an execution definition or to an external file (Fig. 6). If you have several projects open at the same time, you can select the project in which the attachment is to be created from the list. Click on Save in the Save settings in attachment area and enter expeccoMobileDemo as the name. Now click on Connect (6) to establish a connection with the specified configuration.

Abb. 6: Einstellungen speichern


It may take a while to establish the connection. If you have entered the correct server address, you should see the connection attempt in the Appium server output. The app should be started on your iOS device. If nothing happens on the device, either the device or the app may not be found. If Appium tries to start the app and this fails, the app is probably signed incorrectly. In this case, uninstall the app so that it can be reinstalled with a new signature.

Wait until the connection is established and displayed in the GUI browser. Now you know that the configuration works. The saved settings should now be used for the test, which then establishes the same connection. Select the connection in the GUI browser, right-click and select 'Close Connection' from the context menu to avoid any conflict. Then switch back to the test-suite tab.

In the test suite, the settings were created as an appendix expeccoMobileDemo (Fig 7). Select the Connect block (1) and switch to the Network view on the right (2). Drag and drop the settings into the network of the block (3). Connect the output pin pathName with the input pin stringOrFilename[1] of the block Connect from File (4). Confirm the changes with Apply (5). This block will establish the connection to the app at the beginning of the test.

Abb. 7: Verbindungsbaustein editieren


Now switch to the test plan Demo Test (1) (Fig. 8). This test plan already contains some finished test cases. Before and after the execution (2) one block is also entered: The just edited block Connect for the setup and the block Disconnect for the disconnection. By entering the two blocks at this point, the connection is terminated, especially if the test is aborted prematurely, e.g. because one of the test cases fails.

Abb. 8: Testplanausführung


Now you can start the test plan Demo Test by clicking on the green Play button (3). The test plan should run without errors.

Step 2: Creating a block with the Recorder[edit]

With the help of the integrated recorder, you can easily record execution sequences and store them in a block. This requires a connection to a test device, which is used to create the test.

To establish a connection, switch back to the GUI browser. The connection that you created previously is still entered in this browser. Since the same name was used for the connection in the test run, the settings were overwritten with it (in our case, the settings were identical anyway). The connection is currently not active, since it was terminated at the end of the execution. However, the settings are still entered there. To reestablish the connection with this configuration, select it, right-click it, and then Connect.

Wait until the connection is established (1) and then press the record button (2) to start recording (Fig. 9).

Abb. 9: Recorder starten


A window opens with the Mobile Testing Recorder (Fig. 10). This shows a screenshot of the connected device. This screen allows you to control the device remotely. Every action you perform is recorded in the background.

In the upper menu bar, you can select the tool (1) with which you want to enter an action. The tool Auto is selected by default. You can use it to record certain actions by making gestures on the display with the mouse pointer. For example, if you left-click for a long time, this corresponds to a long tap on the element at this point. Instead of specifying the desired action with the corresponding gesture, you can also select it manually.

Now a new test for the recognition of correct GTIN-13 codes shall be recorded. First click briefly on the button GTIN-13 (EAN-13) (2) of the app in the display to trigger a corresponding click on the device. During the execution of this action, the frame of the recorder will briefly turn red. If the recorder does not display the current view of the app afterwards, click on the update icon (3) in the recorder.

Abb. 10: Über Recorder zur GTIN-13-Activity wechseln


Then enter a correct GTIN-13 in the input field of the new page. To do this, right-click on the input field (1) and select the action Set text (2) in the context menu (Fig. 11). Enter any valid article number in GTIN-13 format, e.g. 4006381333986 (3). This text is now set in the app.

Abb. 11: GTIN-13-Code über Recorder eingeben


Now click on Verify (1) (Fig. 12). The app now displays OK (2) as the result. The test should determine whether this result is actually displayed. After a right click you can select the action Assure attribute (3) in the context menu. In the dialog that opens, select the property value (4) and confirm with OK (5). This time, no action is triggered on the device, but only a block is recorded that fails if the result deviates from the expected value OK.

Abb. 12: Antwort der App über Recorder auslesen


Now close the recorder. In the workspace of the GUI browser you can see that a block has been created for each of the recorded actions (Fig. 13). You can now test whether the recorded action can be played back. To do this, you must first return the app on your device to its initial state by using the Home button on the top left of the device. Then click in expecco on the green Play button (1). If everything turns green, the execution was successful. Now create a new block in the test-suite by clicking on the block symbol (2) in the upper right corner. Give it the name GTIN_Verify_OK (3) and confirm (4).

Abb. 13: Neuen Baustein aus Arbeitsbereich exportieren


Now close the connection by selecting the connection, right-clicking and selecting Close connection from the context menu.

Switch back to the Testsuite tab. The new module was created there. Again select the test plan Demo-Test and add the recorded test case GTIN_Verify_OK by drag-and-drop at the end of the test plan. Apply the change and restart. The test plan should run again without errors.

Step 3: Customizing XPath Using the GUI Browser[edit]

Your new device may not work on other devices. The elements used are addressed via an XPath and this cannot be correct on other devices. See the Customizing_XPath using the GUI Browser section for more information. If you have another device available, you can now try to generalize the paths in your created devices. You can also skip this step.

If you find it difficult to find shortened paths, follow the paths of the existing blocks. Start the test again. If the test now fails, check the paths again in the GUI browser. To run the test on a second device, open in the menu Extensions > Mobile Testing > Create connection settings. You will get a dialog similar to the connection dialog. However, you can only create and save settings but not establish a connection. However, you have the option to save individual aspects of the settings, such as only the device. Enter the new device and select it. Click longer on the symbol for saving in the attachment until the delayed menu opens and select Save device settings here (Fig. 14). It is best to name the attachment after the device. You can then close the dialog again.

Abb. 14: Einstellungen für ein Gerät speichern


Select the Connect block and drag the settings for the new device into its network. Now connect its output pin pathName with the input pin stringOrFilename[2] of the block Connect from File. The block Connect from File reads the information at the input pins from top to bottom, multiple properties are replaced. In this case, the settings for the device used are replaced, while the other settings remain the same. If you have chosen the paths skilfully, the test will now also run successfully on the other device.

Step 4: Create another block[edit]

If the same procedures are repeated in the test, you can reuse or modify modules that have already been created for this purpose. The block created in step 2 checks the recognition of correct GTIN 13 codes. A test is still missing which, conversely, checks the detection of a wrong GTIN-13 code. The structure of the two tests is identical, they only differ in their parameters. Therefore copy the block GTIN_Verify_OK and rename the copy to GTIN_Verify_NOT_OK. Change the input of the GTIN-13 to a wrong code, for example by changing the last digit (4006381333987) and set the check value of the output to NOT OK (Fig. 15).

Abb. 15: Baustein editieren


Add this new test to the Test Plan Demo Test as well and place it at the end. Run the test plan, but don't forget to disconnect in the GUI browser first.

The new test will fail because the device you added does not return to the start page of the app, but the tests start from there. This is already considered in the other blocks; they always execute the block Back to main menu at the end. You can see this by selecting one of the other blocks, e.g. GTIN_Calculate, and switching to its schematic view. There the block Back to main menu is displayed in the field After execution (Fig. 16). As with the corresponding field in the test plan, this block is always executed at the end, regardless of whether the test is successful or aborted. Now add this entry to your blocks GTIN_Verify_OK and GTIN_Verify_NOT_OK. Select the block and drag the block Back to main menu in the schema view to the input field After execution. Now you can start the test plan and all tests should be executed again without any problems.

Abb. 16: Nach-Ausführungs-Baustein setzen


Step 5: Complete test[edit]

For the Activity IBAN all answer possibilities of the app are already covered with test cases. In the GTIN-13-Activity a correct and a faulty code are tested and a check digit is calculated, but the behaviour of the app in case of input of wrong length is not tested yet (With Verify 'Input must be exactly 13 digits. and ...12 digits. for Calculate). The activity for checking the serial numbers of euro banknotes is not yet tested. As with the IBAN, three cases can occur here: a correct serial number was entered (answer: OK), an incorrect serial number was entered (answer: NOT OK) or the specification does not correspond to the format (answer: A serial number consists of 12 characters with the first one or two being capital letters (A-Z).). You can now extend the test coverage by creating test cases. You can create the blocks for this with the recorder as in step 2 and generalize the XPaths if necessary. If you are familiar with the basic handling of expecco, you can of course also create blocks without recorder by manually assembling them from existing blocks of the library. You can also combine both approaches as you wish.

Note that the test cases presented here only check individual entries. If you write test cases for your own apps, you probably want to test more closely by entering more different values, including edge cases.

Dialogs of the Mobile Testing Plugin[edit]

Connection Editor[edit]

You can use the Connection Editor to quickly define, change, or establish connections. Depending on the task, the dialog has small differences and is opened differently:

  • If you want to establish a connection, access the dialog in the GUI browser by clicking on Connect and then selecting Mobile Testing.
  • To change or copy an existing connection in the GUI browser, select it, right-click and select Edit Connection or Copy Connection from the context menu.
  • If you do not want to create connection settings for the GUI browser but for use in a test, choose Create Connection Settings from the Mobile Testing Plugin menu.... This only allows you to create the settings for a connection without creating a connection in the GUI browser.

The Connection Editor menu has several buttons, some of which are only visible when creating connection settings: MobileTestingVerbindungseditorMenu.png

  1. Delete Settings: Resets all entries. (Only visible when creating settings.)
  2. Load settings from file: Allows to open a saved settings file (*.csf). Its settings are transferred to the dialog. Entries already made without conflict are retained.
  3. Load settings from attachment: Allows you to open an attachment with connection settings from an open project. These settings are applied to the dialog. Entries already made without conflict are retained.
  4. Save settings to file and
  5. Save settings to attachment: Here you can save the entered settings to a file (*.csf) or create them as an attachment in an open project. Both options have a delayed menu in which you can choose to save only a certain part of the settings. (Only visible when creating settings.)
  6. Advanced View: Allows you to switch to the advanced view to make additional settings. Read more about this at the end of this chapter. (Only visible when creating settings.)
  7. Help: A help text for the respective step is shown or hidden on the right side.


The dialog is divided into three steps. In the first step you select the device you want to use, in the second step you select which App should be used and in the last step the settings for the Appium server are made.

Step 1: Select Device[edit]

In the upper part you will see a list of all connected Appium devices that are detected. With the checkbox below you can hide devices that are detected but not ready. If you want to enter a device that is not connected, you can create it with the corresponding button Enter Android device or Enter iOS device. However, you need to know the required properties of your device. The device is then created in a second device list and can be selected there. If no list with connected elements can be displayed, various messages are displayed instead:

  • No devices found
    expecco could not find any Android devices.
    To automatically configure a connection to a device, make sure
    • it is connected
    • it is turned on
    • that it has an appropriate adb driver installed
    • it is enabled for debugging (see below).
  • No available devices found
    expecco could not find any available Android devices. But not available ones were found, e.g. with the status "unauthorized".
    To configure a connection to a device automatically, make sure that
    • it is connected
    • it is turned on
    • that it has an appropriate adb driver installed
    • it is enabled for debugging (see below).
    To view unavailable devices, enable this option below.
  • Connection lost
    expecco has lost the connection to the adb server. Try to re-establish the connection by clicking on the button.
  • Connection failed
    expecco could not connect to the adb server. Possibly it is not running or the specified path is not correct.
    Check the adb configuration in the settings and try to start the adb server and establish a connection by clicking on the button.
  • Connect ...
    expecco connects to the adb server. This may take a few seconds.
  • Start adb-Server ...
    expecco starts the adb-Server. This may take a few seconds.

With Next you get to the next step. If you enter settings for the GUI browser, this is only possible once a device has been selected.

Note on unlocking: In newer Android versions the developer options are no longer offered in the settings at first. If your Android device does not show an entry for "Developer options" in the settings, first select the entry "Phone info", then "SoftwareVersionsInfo" and click on the entry "BuildVersion" several times.

Step 2: Select App[edit]

Here you can enter information about the app to be tested. You can decide if you want to use an app that is already installed on the device or if you want to install an app for the test. Select the appropriate tab above. Depending on whether you selected an Android or an iOS device in the previous step, the required input will change.

  • Android
    • App on the Device
      If you have selected a connected device in the first step, the packages of all installed apps are automatically retrieved and you can select from the drop-down lists. The installed apps are divided into third-party packages and system packages; select the appropriate package list. This selection does not belong to the settings, but only provides the corresponding package list. You can use the filter to further narrow down the list and then select the desired package. The activities of the selected package are also automatically retrieved and made available as a drop-down list. Select the activity you want to start. As a rule, an activity is automatically entered from the list. If you are not using a connected device, you must enter the package and the activity manually.
    • Install App
      Under App, enter the path to an app. The path must be valid for the Appium server being used. You can also specify a URL. If you are using a local Appium server, you can use the right button to navigate to the App installation file and enter this path. If possible, the corresponding package and the activity are also entered in the fields below. However, this entry is not necessary.
  • iOS
    • App on the Device
      Specify the bundle ID of an installed app. You can find out the IDs of the installed apps using Xcode, for example. Start Xcode and select Devices from the menu bar at the top of the screen in the Window menu. A window will open displaying a list of connected devices. If you select your device, you will see a list of the apps you have installed in the overview.
    • Install App
      Under App, enter the path to an app. The path must be valid for the Appium server being used. You can also specify a URL. For the requirements of apps for real devices, please read the section Preparing an iOS-Device and App.

In the lower part you can specify whether the app should be reset or uninstalled when the connection is terminated, and whether it should be reset initially. Again, the corresponding capability is not set if you select (Default). With Next you get to the next step.

Step 3: Server Settings[edit]

In the last step, a list of all the capabilities that result from your entries in the previous steps is first displayed in the upper part. If you are familiar with Appium and want to set additional capabilities that are not covered by the connection editor, you can click on Edit to open the extended view. See the section below for more information.

If you enter settings for the GUI browser, you can enter the Connection name with which the connection is displayed. This is also the name under which devices can use this connection when it is established. If you leave the field blank, a name will be generated. To specify the address for the Appium server, you get the local default address and addresses already used for selection. If you check the box for Start on demand, expecco tries to start an Appium server at the given address when connecting, if none is running there yet. This server will then also be shut down when the connection is terminated. This only works for local addresses. Make sure that you only use port numbers that are free. It is best to only use odd port numbers from the standard port 4723. The following port number is also used when establishing a connection, which could otherwise lead to conflicts.

Depending on how you opened the dialog, there are now different buttons to close it. In any case you have the option to save. This opens a dialog where you can either select an open project to save the settings there as an attachment, or choose to save it to a file that you can then specify. Saving does not close the dialog, allowing you to select another option.

If you have opened the editor for establishing a connection, you can finally click on Connect or Start and connect server, depending on whether the check mark for server start is set. For changing or copying a connection in the GUI Browser, this option is called Apply, since in this case only the connection entry is changed or created, but the connection setup is not started. If necessary, you can do this afterwards via the context menu. If you have changed capabilities of an existing connection, a dialog then prompts you to decide whether these changes should be applied directly by closing the connection and establishing the new connection or not. In this case, the changes only take effect after you reestablish the connection.

To use the connection editor, also read the corresponding section in the respective tutorial in step 1. (Android: Run Demo, iOS: Run Demo).

Extended View[edit]

The extended view of the connection editor can be obtained either by clicking on Edit in the third step or at any time via the corresponding menu item if you have started the editor via the plugin menu. This view displays a list of all configured Appium Capabilities. You can add, change or remove further entries to this list. To add a capability, select it from the drop-down list of the input field. In this list all known capabilities are sorted into the categories Common, Android and iOS. If you have selected a capability, a short information text is displayed. You can also enter a capability manually in the field. Then click on Add to add the capability to the list. There you can set the value in the right column. To delete an entry, select it and click on Remove. With Back you leave the extended view.

MobileTestingErweiterteAnsicht.png

Running Appium Servers[edit]

In the menu of the Mobile Testing Plugin you will find the entry Appium-Server.... This opens a window with an overview of all Appium servers started by expecco and on which port they are running. By clicking on the icon in the column Show Log you can view the logfile of the corresponding server. This is deleted when the server is shut down. With the icons in the column Exit the corresponding server can be terminated. However, this is prevented if expecco still has an open connection via this server.

You can also start servers here. Use the input fields to configure the server address. You can also leave the fields blank to use the default values. Please note that servers can only be started locally and the selected port must not be occupied. Typically the odd port numbers from 4723 are used. The following port number is also required when connecting to a device, which could lead to conflicts with the even numbers.

MobileTestingAppiumServer.png

In the menu of the Mobile Testing Plugin you will also find the entry Close all Connections and Servers. This is intended for cases where connections or servers cannot be terminated in any other way. If possible, always terminate connections in the GUI browser or by executing a corresponding block. Servers that you have started in the server overview should be terminated there; servers that were started with a connection are automatically terminated with this connection.

Note that only servers started and managed by expecco are listed in the overview. Possible other Appium servers that were started in a different way are not recognized.

Recorder[edit]

If the GUI browser is connected to a device, the integrated recorder can be used to record a test section with that device. To start the recorder, select the appropriate connection in the GUI browser and click the Record button. A new window opens for the recorder. The recorded actions are created in the GUI browser work area. It is therefore possible to edit the recorded data in parallel.

MobileTestingRecorder.png

Komponenten des Recorderfensters
  1. Aktualisieren: Holt das aktuelle Bild und den aktuellen Elementbaum vom Gerät. Dies wird nötig, wenn das Gerät zur Ausführung einer Aktion länger braucht oder sich etwas ohne das Anstoßen durch den Recorder ändert.
  2. Follow-Mouse: Das Element unter dem Mauszeiger wird im GUI-Browser ausgewählt.
  3. Element-Highlighting: Das Elements unter dem Mauszeiger wird rot umrandet.
  4. Elemente einzeichnen: Die Rahmen aller Elemente der Ansicht werden angezeigt.
  5. Werkzeuge: Auswahl, mit welchem Werkzeug aufgenommen werden soll. Die gewählte Aktion wird bei einem Klick auf die Anzeige ausgelöst. Dabei stehen folgende Aktionen zur Verfügung:
    • Aktionen auf Elemente:
      • Klicken: Kurzer Klick auf das Element über dem der Cursor steht. Zur genaueren Bestimmung, welches Element verwendet wird, benutzen Sie die Funktion Follow-Mouse oder Highlight-Selected.
      • Element antippen: Ähnlich zum Klicken, nur dass zusätzlich die Dauer des Klicks aufgezeichnet wird. Dadurch sind auch längere Klicks möglich.
      • Text setzen: Ermöglicht das Setzen eines Textes in Eingabefelder.
      • Text löschen: Löscht den Text eines Eingabefelds.
    • Aktionen auf das Gerät:
      • Antippen: Löst einen Klick auf die Bildschirmposition aus, bei dem auch die Dauer berücksichtigt wird.
      • Wischen: Wischen in einer geraden Linie vom Punkt des Drückens des Mausknopfes bis zum Loslassen. Die Dauer wird ebenfalls aufgezeichnet.
    Beachten Sie bei diesen Aktionen, dass das Ergebnis sich auf verschiedenen Geräten unterscheiden kann, bspw. bei verschiedenen Bildschirmauflösungen.
    • Erstellen von Testablauf-Bausteinen
      • Attribut prüfen: Vergleicht den Wert eines festgelegten Attributs des Elements mit einem vorgegebenen Wert. Das Ergebnis triggert den entsprechenden Ausgang.
      • Attribut zusichern: Vergleicht den Wert eines festgelegten Attributs des Elements mit einem vorgegebenen Wert. Bei Ungleichheit schlägt der Test fehl.
    • Auto
    Ist das Auto-Werkzeug ausgewählt, können alle Aktionen durch spezifische Eingabeweise benutzt werden: Klicken, Element antippen und Wischen funktionieren weiterhin durch Klicken, wobei sie anhand der Dauer und der Bewegung des Cursors unterschieden werden. Um ein Antippen auszulösen, halten Sie beim Klicken Strg gedrückt. Die übrigen Aktionen erhalten Sie durch einen Rechtsklick auf das Element in einem Kontextmenü.
  6. Softkeys: Nur unter Android. Simuliert das Drücken der Knöpfe Zurück, Home, Fensterliste und Power.
  7. Home-Button: Nur unter iOS ab expecco 2.11. Ermöglicht das Drücken des Home-Buttons. Funktioniert nur, wenn AssistiveTouch aktiviert ist und sich das Menü in der Mitte des oberen Bildschirmrands befindet.
  8. Anzeige: Zeigt einen Screenshot des Geräts. Aktionen werden mit der Maus je nach Werkzeug ausgelöst. Wenn eine neue Aktion eingegeben werden kann, hat das Fenster einen grünen Rahmen, sonst ist er rot.
  9. Fenster an Bild anpassen: Ändert die Größe des Fensters so, dass der Screenshot vollständig angezeigt werden kann.
  10. Bild an Fenster anpassen: Skaliert den Screenshot auf eine Größe, mit der er die volle Größe des Fensters ausnutzt.
  11. Ausrichtung anpassen: Korrigiert das Bild, falls dieses auf dem Kopf stehen sollte. Über den Pfeil rechts daneben kann das Bild auch um 90° gedreht werden, falls dies einmal nötig sein sollte. Die Ausrichtung des Bildes ist für die Funktion des Recorders unerheblich, dieser arbeitet ausschließlich auf den erhaltenen Elementen.
  12. Skalierung: Ändert die Skalierung des Screenshots. Kann auch über den Schieberegler rechts daneben angepasst werden.
  13. Kontrollleuchte: Zeigt den Zustand des Recorders an
    grün: Der Recorder ist bereit
    rot: Der Recorder ist blockiert, weil die Anzeige und die Elementliste aktualisiert werden
    grau: Der Recorder kann nicht mehr verwendet werden, da die Verbindung zum Gerät verloren gegangen ist
Verwendung

Mit jedem Klick im Fenster wird eine Aktion ausgelöst und im Arbeitsbereich des GUI-Browsers aufgezeichnet. Dort können Sie das Aufgenommene abspielen, editieren oder daraus einen neuen Baustein erstellen. Zur Verwendung des Recorders lesen Sie auch Schritt 2 im Tutorial (Android bzw. iOS).

AVD Manager und SDK Manager[edit]

AVD Manager und SDK Manager sind beides Anwendungen von Android. Im Menü des Mobile Testing Plugins bietet expecco die Möglichkeit, diese zu starten. Ansonsten finden Sie diese Programme bei Ihrer Android-Installation. Mit dem AVD Manager können Sie AVDs, also Konfigurationen für Emulatoren, erstellen, bearbeiten und starten. Mit dem SDK Manager erhalten Sie einen Überblick über Ihre Android-Installation und können diese bei Bedarf erweitern.

Customizing XPath using the GUI Browsers[edit]

Bausteine, die auf einem Gerät fehlerfrei funktionieren, tun dies auf anderen Geräten möglicherweise nicht. Auch können kleine Änderungen der App dazu führen, dass ein Baustein nicht mehr den gewünschten Effekt hat. Man sollte einen Baustein daher so robust formulieren, dass er für eine Vielzahl von Geräten verwendet werden kann und kleine Anpassungen an der App verkraftet. Dazu muss man das grundlegende Funktionsprinzip der Adressierung verstehen. Dies wird im Folgenden am Beispiel der App aus dem Tutorial erläutert.

Die Ansicht der App setzt sich aus einzelnen Elementen zusammen. Dazu gehören die Schaltflächen GTIN-13 (EAN-13) und Verify, das Eingabefeld der Zahl 4006381333986 und das Ergebnisfeld, in dem OK erscheint, wie auch alle anderen auf der Anzeige sichtbaren Dinge. Diese sichtbaren Elemente sind in unsichtbare Strukturelemente eingebettet. Alle Elemente zusammen sind in einer zusammenhängenden Hierarchie, dem Elementbaum, organisiert.

Abb. 1: Funktionen des GUI-Browsers


Sie können sich diesen Baum im GUI-Browser ansehen. Wechseln Sie dazu in den GUI-Browser (Abb. 1) und starten Sie eine beliebige Verbindung. Sobald die Verbindung aufgebaut ist, können Sie den gesamten Baum aufklappen (1) (Klick bei gedrückter Strg-Taste). Er enthält alle Elemente der aktuellen Seite der App.

Ein Baustein, der nun ein bestimmtes Element verwendet, muss dieses eindeutig angeben, indem er dessen Position im Elementbaum mit einem Pfad im XPath-Format beschreibt. Dieses Format ist ein verbreiteter Web-Standard für XML-Dokumente und -Datenbanken, eignet sich aber genauso für Pfade im Elementbaum.

Wenn Sie ein Element im Baum auswählen, wird unten der von expecco automatisch generierte XPath (2) für das Element angezeigt, der auch beim Aufzeichnen verwendet wird. Oberhalb davon in der Mitte des Fensters befindet sich eine Liste der Eigenschaften (3) des ausgewählten Elements. Man nennt diese Eigenschaften auch Attribute. Sie beschreiben das Element näher wie beispielsweise seinen Typ, seinen Text oder andere Informationen zu seinem Zustand. Links unten können Sie zur besseren Orientierung im Baum die Vorschau (4) aktivieren, um sich den Bildausschnitt des Elements anzeigen zu lassen.

Der Elementbaum für gleiche Ansicht einer App kann sich je nach Gerät unterscheiden. Es sind diese Unterschiede, die verhindern, eine Aufnahme von einem Gerät unverändert auch auf allen anderen Geräten abzuspielen: Ein XPath, der im einen Elementbaum ein bestimmtes Element identifiziert, beschreibt nicht unbedingt das gleiche Element im Elementbaum auf einem anderen Gerät. Es kann stattdessen passieren, dass der XPath auf kein Element, auf ein falsches Element oder auf mehrere Elemente passt. Dann schlägt der Test fehl oder er verhält sich unerwartet.

Man könnte natürlich für jedes Gerät einen eigenen Testfall schreiben. Das brächte aber unverhältnismäßigen Aufwand bei Testerstellung und -wartung mit sich. Das Problem lässt sich auch anders lösen, da ein jeweiliges Element nicht nur durch genau einen XPath beschrieben wird. Vielmehr erlaubt der Standard mithilfe verschiedener Merkmale unterschiedliche Beschreibungen für ein und dasselbe Element zu formulieren. Das Ziel ist daher, einen Pfad zu finden, der auf allen für den Test verwendeten Geräten funktioniert und überall eindeutig zum richtigen Element führt.

Im Beispiel besteht die Verbindung zur Android-App aus dem Tutorial und der Eintrag des GTIN-13-Buttons ist ausgewählt (5). Dessen automatisch generierter XPath (2) kann beispielsweise so aussehen:

//hierarchy/android.widget.FrameLayout/android.widget.LinearLayout/android.widget.FrameLayout/android.view.ViewGroup/android.widget.FrameLayout[@resource id='android:id/content']/android.widget.RelativeLayout/android.widget.Button[@resource-id='de.exept.expeccomobiledemo:id/gtin_13']

Er ist offensichtlich lang und unübersichtlich. Der sehr viel kürzere Pfad

//*[@text='GTIN-13 (EAN-13)']

führt zum selben Element.

Für die iOS-App lautet der automatisch generierte XPath für diesen Button beispielsweise

//AppiumAUT/XCUIElementTypeApplication/XCUIElementTypeWindow[1]/XCUIElementTypeOther/XCUIElementTypeOther/XCUIElementTypeOther/XCUIElementTypeOther/XCUIElementTypeButton[2]

bzw.

//AppiumAUT/UIAApplication/UIAWindow[1]/UIAButton[2]

und kann kürzer als

//*[@name='GTIN-13 (EAN-13)']

geschrieben werden.

Sie können den Pfad entsprechend im GUI-Browser ändern und durch Pfad überprüfen (6) feststellen, ob er weiterhin auf das ausgewählte Element zeigt, was expecco mit Verify Path: OK (7) bestätigen sollte. Der erste, sehr viel längere Pfad, beschreibt den gesamten Weg vom obersten Element des Baumes bis hin zum gesuchten Button. Der zweite Pfad hingegen wählt mit * zunächst sämtliche Elemente des Baumes und schränkt die Auswahl dann auf genau die Elemente ein, die ein text- bzw. name-Attribut mit dem Wert GTIN-13 (EAN-13) besitzen, in unserem Fall also genau der eine Button, den wir suchen.

Im folgenden werden Android-ähnliche Pfade zur Veranschaulichung verwendet. Die Elemente in iOS-Apps heißen zwar anders, wodurch andere Pfade entstehen; das Prinzip ist jedoch das gleiche.

Abb. 2: Elementbaum einer fiktiven App

Sie können solche Pfade mit Hilfe weniger Regeln selbst formulieren. Sehen Sie sich den einfachen Baum einer fiktiven Android-App in Abb. 2 an: Die Einrückungen innerhalb des Baumes geben die Hierarchie der Elemente wieder. Ein Element ist ein Kind eines anderen Elementes, wenn jenes andere Element das nächsthöhere Element mit einem um eins geringeren Einzug ist. Jenes Element ist das Elternelement des Kindes. Sind mehrere untereinander stehende Elemente gleich eingerückt, so sind sie also alle Kinder desselben Elternelements.

Ein Pfad durch alle Ebenen der Hierarchie zum TextView-Element ist nun:

//hierarchy/android.widget.FrameLayout/android.widget.LinearLayout/android.widget.FrameLayout/android.widget.LinearLayout/android.widget.TextView

Die Elemente sind mit Schrägstrichen voneinander getrennt. Es fällt auf, dass der Name des ersten Elements nicht mit dem im Baum übereinstimmt. Das oberste Element in der Hierarchie heißt immer hierarchy (für iOS wäre es AppiumAUT), expecco zeigt im Baum stattdessen den Namen der Verbindung an, damit man mehrere Verbindungen voneinander unterscheiden kann. Die weiteren Elemente tragen jeweils das Präfix android.widget., das im Baum zur besseren Übersicht nicht angezeigt wird. Bei IOS gibt es kein Präfix, das durch einen Punkt abgetrennt wäre, expecco 2.11 blendet aber entsprechend XCUIElementType am Anfang aus. Mit jedem Schrägstrich führt der Pfad über eine Eltern-Kind-Beziehung in eine tiefere Hierarchie-Ebene, d. h. FrameLayout ist ein Kindelement von hierarchy, LinearLayout ist ein Kind von FrameLayout usw. Die in eckigen Klammern geschriebenen Wörter dienen nur als Orientierungshilfe im Baum. Sie gehören nicht zum Typ.

Ein Pfad muss nicht beim Element hierarchy beginnen. Man kann den Pfad beginnend mit einem beliebigen Element des Baumes bilden. Man kann also verkürzt auch

//android.widget.TextView

schreiben. Der Pfad führt zum selben TextView-Element, da es nur ein Element dieses Typs gibt. Anders verhält es sich bei dem Pfad

//android.widget.Button.

Da es zwei Elemente vom Typ Button gibt, passt dieser Pfad auf zwei Elemente, nämlich den Button, der mit "An" markiert ist, und den Button, der mit "Aus" markiert ist. Es würde an dieser Stelle aber auch nicht helfen den langen Pfad von hierarchy aus beginnend anzugeben. Um einen mehrdeutigen Pfad weiter zu differenzieren, kann man explizit ein Element aus einer Menge wählen, indem man den numerischen Index in eckigen Klammern dahinter schreibt. Der Pfad aus dem obigen Beispiel lässt sich damit so anpassen, dass er eindeutig auf den Button mit der Markierung "Aus" weist:

//android.widget.Button[1].

Ihnen fällt sicher auf, dass der Index eine 1 ist obwohl das zweite Element gemeint ist. Das kommt daher, dass die Zählung bei 0 beginnt. Der Button mit der Markierung "An" hat also die Nummer 0 und der Button mit der Markierung "Aus" hat die Nummer 1.

Dieser Ansatz, einen expliziten Index zu verwenden, hat zwei Nachteile: Zum einen lässt sich an dem Pfad nur schwer ablesen welches Element gemeint ist, zum andern ist der Pfad sehr empfindlich schon gegenüber kleinsten Änderungen, wie zum Beispiel dem Vertauschen der beiden Button-Elemente oder dem Einfügen eines weiteren Button-Elements in der App.

Es wäre daher wünschenswert, das gemeinte Element über eine ihm charakteristische Eigenschaft wie einen Attributwert, zu adressieren. Für Android-Apps eignet sich hierfür häufig das Attribut resource-id. Im Idealfall muss bei der Entwicklung der App darauf geachtet werden, dass jedes Element eine eindeutige Id erhält. Die resource-id hat den großen Vorteil, dass sie unabhängig vom Text des Elements oder der Spracheinstellung des Geräts ist. Für iOS-Apps kann entsprechend das Attribut name verwendet werden, wenn es von der App sinnvoll gesetzt wird. Der XPath-Standard erlaubt solche Auswahlbedingungen zu einem Element anzugeben. Angenommen, der Button mit der Markierung "Aus" hat die Eigenschaft resource-id mit dem Wert off und der Button mit der Markierung "An" hat als resource-id den Wert on, dann kann man als eindeutigen Pfad für den "Aus"-Button

//android.widget.Button[@resource-id='off']

formulieren. Wie an dem Beispiel zu sehen werden solche Bedingungen wie ein Index in eckigen Klammern an den Elementtyp angehängt. Der Name eines Attributes wird mit einem @ eingeleitet und der Wert mit einem = in Anführungszeichen angehängt. Ist der Attributwert global eindeutig, kann man den vorausgehenden Pfad sogar durch den globalen Platzhalter * ersetzen, der auf jedes Element passt. Das obige Beispiel mit dem GTIN-13-Button war ein solcher Fall.

Abb. 3: Elementbaum einer fiktiven App mit Erweiterungen

Abb. 3 zeigt eine Erweiterung des Beispiels aus Abb. 2. Die App hat nun ein weiteres, nahezu identisches LinearLayout bekommen. Die Buttons sind in ihren Attributen jeweils ununterscheidbar. Deshalb funktioniert der vorige Ansatz nicht, einen eindeutigen Pfad nur mithilfe eines Attributwerts zu formulieren. Offensichtlich unterscheiden sich aber ihre benachbarten TextViews. Es ist möglich die jeweilige TextView in den Pfad mit aufzunehmen, um einen Button dennoch eindeutig zu adressieren. Ein Pfad zum Button mit der Markierung "An" unterhalb der TextView mit der Markierung "Druckschalter" kann dabei wie folgt aussehen:

//android.widget.TextView[@resource-id='push']/../android.widget.Button[@resource-id='on']

Der erste Teil beschreibt den Pfad zu der TextView mit der Markierung "Druckschalter" und der resource-id mit dem Wert push. Danach folgt ein Schrägstrich gefolgt von zwei Punkten. Die zwei Punkte sind eine spezielle Elementbezeichnung, die nicht ein Kindelement benennt, sondern zum Elternelement wechselt, in diesem Fall also das LinearLayout, in dem die TextView eingebettet ist. Im Kontext dieses LinearLayout ist der restliche Pfad, nämlich der Button mit der resource-id mit dem Wert on, eindeutig.

Der XPath-Standard bietet noch sehr viel mehr Ausdrucksmittel. Mit der hier knapp vorgestellten Auswahl ist es aber bereits möglich für die meisten praktischen Testfälle gute Pfade zu formulieren. Eine vollständige Einführung in XPath ginge über den Umfang dieser Einführung weit hinaus. Sie finden zahlreiche weiterführende Dokumentationen im Web und in Büchern.

Eine universelle Strategie zum Erstellen guter XPaths gibt es nicht, da sie von den Testanforderungen abhängt. In der Regel ist es sinnvoll, den XPath kurz und dennoch eindeutig zu halten. Häufig lassen sich Elemente über Eigenschaften identifizieren wie beispielsweise ihren Text. Will man aber gerade den Text eines Elements auslesen, kann dieser natürlich nicht im Pfad verwendet werden, da er vorher nicht bekannt ist. Ebenso wird der Text variieren, wenn die App mit verschiedenen Sprachen gestartet wird.

Jeder Baustein, der auf einem Element arbeitet, hat einen Eingangspin für den XPath. Im GUI-Browser finden Sie in der Mitte oben eine Liste von Bausteinen mit Aktionen, die Sie auf das ausgewählte Element anwenden können. Suchen Sie den Baustein Click (8) im Ordner Elements und wählen Sie ihn aus (Abb. 1). Er wird im rechten Teil unter Test eingefügt, der Pin für den XPath ist mit dem automatisch generierten Pfad des Elements vorbelegt (9). Sie können den Baustein hier auch ausführen. Die Ansicht wechselt dann auf Lauf. Ändert sich durch die Aktion der Zustand Ihrer App, müssen Sie den Baum anschließend aktualisieren (10).

Wenn Sie in der unteren Liste eine Eigenschaft auswählen, wechselt die Anzeige der Bausteine zu Eigenschaften, wo Sie die eigenschaftsbezogenen Bausteine finden. Wie bei den Aktionen können Sie auch hier einen Baustein auswählen, der dann rechts in Test mit dem Pfad des Elements und der ausgewählten Eigenschaft eingetragen wird, sodass Sie ihn direkt ausführen können.

Probleme und Lösungen[edit]

Allgemeine Hinweise[edit]

  • Wenn ein über USB angeschlossenes Android-Gerät nicht im Verbindungsdialog auftaucht, versuchen Sie, den USB-Verbindungstyp zu ändern. In der Regel sollten MTP oder PTP funktionieren. Siehe auch Android-Gerät vorbereiten.
  • In manchen Fällen erscheint beim Verbinden eines iOS-Geräts über USB der Hinweis, das verwendete Kabel sei nicht zertifiziert. In diesem Fall hilft es nur, das entsprechende Kabel auszutauschen.
  • Beachten Sie, dass im Recorder auch Elemente berücksichtigt werden, die Sie auf dem Bildschirm nicht sehen. Schalten Sie daher das Element-Highlighting an oder nutzen Sie Follow-Mouse-Funktion und den Elementbaum im GUI-Browser, um festzustellen, ob das richtige Element verwendet wird.
  • Stellen Sie sicher, dass beim Verbindungsaufbau mit einem iOS-Gerät keine Alerts geöffnet sind. Der Aufbau schlägt sonst fehl, da die App nicht in den Vordergrund kommen kann. Siehe auch iOS-Gerät und App vorbereiten.
  • Um einen iOS-Simulator zu verwenden müssen Sie keine udid angeben. In Xcode erhalten Sie die Namen der verfügbaren Simulatoren. Starten Sie dazu Xcode und wählen Sie in der Menüleiste am oberen Bildschirmrand im Menü Window den Eintrag Devices. Hier sind neben den angeschlossenen Geräten auch die verfügbaren Simulatoren aufgelistet. Beachten Sie dabei, dass auf Simulatoren keine .ipa-Dateien sondern nur .app-Dateien installiert werden können.
  • Bei Android-Geräten, die Softkeys automatisch ein- und ausblenden, kann es vorkommen, dass der Recorder im unteren Bereich Elemente abschneidet, die durch die Softkeys verdeckt würden, auch wenn sie zu diesem Zeitpunkt gar nicht angezeigt werden. In diesem Fall hift es, die Softkeys so einzustellen, dass sie permanent angezeigt werden.

Verbindungsaufbau schlägt fehl[edit]

Schlägt der Verbindungsaufbau mit dem Appium-Server fehl, erhalten Sie in expecco eine Fehlermeldung ähnlicher der unten abgebildeten.

Falls der Fehler nicht durch eine der unten gelisteten Ursachen bedingt ist, kann es sein, daß die auf dem Gerät befindliche UI-Automator Anwendung nicht mehr richtig funktioniert (Anm. dies tritt auf einigen Geräten sporadisch auf - die Ursache dafür ist uns z.Z. noch nicht bekannt). Hier hilft es, die UI-Automator Anwendungen im Mobilgerät zu deinstallieren. Expecco wird diese dann mit dem nächsten Verbindungsaufbau selbst wieder installieren.

Zur Deinstallation navigieren Sie auf dem Gerät zu: "Einstellungen" - "Anwendungen", und suchen in der Liste nach folgenden Einträgen:

   Appium Settings
   io.appium.uiautomator2.server
   io.appium.uiautomator2.server.test

klicken Sie auf die jeweilige Anwendung und dann auf "Deinstallieren".

Falls die nicht hilft, kann eventuell der Appium-Server log weiter helfen (diesen erreichen Sie über das "Erweiterungen" - "Mobile Testing" Menü von expecco)

MobileTestingVerbindungsfehler.png

Hier sehen Sie die Art des aufgetretenen Fehlers. Klicken Sie auf Details um nähere Informationen zu erhalten. Mögliche Fehler sind:

  • org.openqa.selenium.remote.UnreachableBrowserException
Der angegebene Server läuft nicht oder ist nicht erreichbar. Überprüfen Sie die Serveradresse.
  • org.openqa.selenium.WebDriverException
Lesen Sie in den Details in der ersten Zeile die Meldung hinter Original Error:
  • Unknown device or simulator UDID
Entweder ist das Gerät nicht richtig angeschlossen oder die udid stimmt nicht.
  • Unable to launch WebDriverAgent because of xcodebuild failure: xcodebuild failed with code 65
Dieser Fehler kann verschiedene Ursachen haben. Entweder konnte tatsächlich der WebDriverAgent nicht gebaut werden, weil die Signierungseinstellungen falsch sind oder das passende Provisioning Profile fehlt. Lesen Sie dazu den Abschnitt zur Verbereitung unter Mac OS mit expecco 2.11. Es kann auch sein, dass der WebDriverAgent auf dem Gerät nicht gestartet werden kann, weil sich beispielsweise ein Alert im Vordergrund befindet oder Sie dem Entwickler nicht vertraut haben.
  • Could not install app: 'Command 'ios-deploy [...] exited with code 253'
Die angegebene App kann nicht auf dem iOS-Gerät installiert werden, weil es nicht im Provisioning Profile der App eingetragen ist.
  • Bad app: [...] App paths need to be absolute, or relative to the appium server install dir, or a URL to compressed file, or a special app name.'
Der Pfad zur App ist falsch. Stellen Sie sicher, dass sich die Datei unter dem angegebenen Pfad auf dem Mac befindet.
  • packageAndLaunchActivityFromManifest failed.
Die angegebene apk-Datei ist vermutlich kaputt.
  • Could not find app apk at [...]
Der Pfad zur App ist falsch. Stellen Sie sicher, dass sich die apk-Datei m angegebenen Pfad befindet.



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